The Kanji 孰熟塾享築恐工 – the component 丸凡 (2)

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This is the second half of our exploration on the kanji components that contain a person with two hands reaching forward.

C. 孰 “hands cooking food thoroughly”

7. The kanji 孰 “either; anyway”

History of Kanji 孰The rarely used kanji 孰 in 孰れ /izure/ “either; which option; future; anyway” is not a Joyo kanji, but its history, shown on the left, helps us to understand the two kanji, 熟 and 塾. In oracle bone style of the kanji 孰, in brown, the left side was a cooking stove with a lid on top. The right side was a person who was cooking with his two hands above the stove. They meant “to cook food thoroughly.” In bronze ware style, in green, the upper left became a multiple layered cooking stove and the lower left appeared to be a woman. The right side was a person with two hands. In ten style, in red, the lower left was replaced by “sheep” 羊, which signified tasty meat or food. In kanji the lower left was replaced by 子.

There is no on-yomi word for this kanji, but it was borrowed in kun-yomi words in classical literature to mean “either; which; future.” It may be related to the original meaning of the right side of the kanji having the meaning of “to grab; take.” The kun-yomi is 孰れ /izure/ but the words that could use this kanji are usually written in hiragana nowadays. They include いずれ (孰れ) (sometime in the future), いずれかを取る (“to choose either one” /izureka’ o to’ru/) and いずれにせよ (“whichever the case may be; at any rate” /izurenise’yo/). Those expressions are frequently used in polite or business speech.

History of Kanji 享&亨Notes on 享 (亨) to mean “cooking.”– The left side of the kanji 孰 by itself is the kanji 享 (a Joyo kanji) and it means “to receive” (/uke’ru/ in kun-yomi and /kyo’o/ in on-yomi, in words such as 享受する “to enjoy” /kyo’oju/.)  Another kanji 亨 “through; to cook through” (only used in a name now) shared the same origin. When a bushu rekka or renga, “fire,” is added at the bottom to 亨, it made the kanji 烹 (/ho‘o; po’o/) and meant “cooking.” 割烹料理 /kappooryo’ori/ means “Japanese style cooking.” A white cooking apron that any housewife used to wear over the kimono is called 割烹着 /kappo’ogi/. It covered the sleeves of the kimono and wide area in front through most of the back. Nowadays most people use a western style apron, but some school children still wear them on their lunch service duty 給食当番 /kyuushoku-to’oban./

8. The kanji 熟 “to mature; ripen”

By adding a fire (bushu renga or rekka) at the bottom of the kanji 孰, we get the kanji 熟. There is no ancient writing for this kanji. Putting food on a fire signified “cooking thoroughly,” and from that it meant “to ripen; thoroughly.” The kun-yomi 熟れる /ure’ru/ means “(fruit) to ripen.” The on-yomi /ju’ku/ is in 熟する “to ripen” and in 機が熟する (“ripe opportunity” /ki’ga jukusu’ru/). It is also in 完熟トマト (“ripe tomato”  /kanjukuto’mato/), 未熟な (“immature” /mijukuna/), 早熟な子供 (“precocious child” /soojuku-na kodomo/), 熟睡する (“to sleep soundly” /jukusui-suru/). More recently the word 熟年層 (“mature people; middle aged and older” /jukune’nsoo/) has appeared as the older population gets more attention.

9. The kanji 塾 “private tutoring classes”

Adding 土 “soil; ground” to the kanji 孰, we get the another kanji 塾 /ju’ku/. There is no ancient writing for this kanji. It meant a place where students were educated privately. Juku 塾 is now a part of Japanese education, which is rigidly competitive. A large number of children attend after-school classes where they deepen their understanding of lesson materials. The meaning of ripening or cooking thoroughly is applied to learning and thinking — I find this very interesting. Tuition can be a burden on the parents, who feel that they do not have a choice if they want the best for their children. The kanji 塾 does not have any kun-yomi.

D. 凡 “hands holding a tool” in 築恐

The fourth component that teams up with the shape that originated with “a person kneeling down with his two hands forward” resulted in the shape 凡, not 丸. We look at two kanji, 築 and 恐 here.

10. The kanji 築 “to build; construct”

History of Kanji 築In the bronze ware style writing of the kanji 築 the top was bamboo and the lower left had the shape 工 “craft work” and 木 “tree; wood.” The right side was a person kneeing down with his hands out. Bamboo and wood signified construction materials. So, altogether they meant that a person was engaged on building something using wooden boards and bamboo sticks. In ten style the position of these four components remained the same. The kanji 築 meant “to construct; build.“ The kun-yomi 築く /kizu’ku/ means “to construct; build.” (Please note that when you write the word 築く in hiragana, you write きずく, whereas the same pronunciation verb 気付く is written in きづく.)  The on-yomi /chi’ku/ is in 建築 (“architecture” /kenchiku/), 建築家 (“architect” /kenchikuka/) 構築する (“to construct” /koochiku-suru/).

History of Kanji 筑The top without 木 is another kanji, 筑. Even though it has the same meaning “to construct; build,” it is only used in names of an area or a person in Japanese. It is believed to be the earlier shape of the kanji 築, but there is no bronze ware style sample available to us for 筑.

11. The kanji 恐 “to fear”

History of Kanji 恐(2)The kanji 恐 contains the middle component of the kanji 築. The meanings of these two kanji differ drastically. In fact we have already looked at the kanji 恐 in an earlier post [February 28, 2015] in the context of 心 “heart.” This time I am adding a couple more writing samples, (b) and (c), in the development shown on the left side. In bronze ware style (a), a person kneeling down was holding something with two hands. A later bronze ware style, (b), and (c) in the Setsumon kobun (古文), an older style writing cited in Setsumon Kaiji, had only 工 and a heart. How did the two shapes 工 and 心 lead to the meaning “to fear”?  The answer must be in the shape 工.

History of Kanji 工(frame)The development of the kanji 工 is shown on the right. A simple shape such as 工 allows all kinds of interpretations, including — a carpenter’s ruler; two boards connected with a stick; a work area for pounding iron; or a tool in a religious rite.  Shirakawa (2004)’s explanation was that it was a tool for magic or spells and that the writing meant the person was praying to a god as he held up a tool for magic or a spell. From “fear of god” it meant “fear.” An interpretation that involves magic or spells in ancient times is not something I feel very comfortable with, but for this kanji other interpretations do not seem to add up convincingly to me. So, I leave as it is.

History of Kanji 凡(frame)Incidentally the shape 凡 by itself is a kanji /bo’n; ha’n/ “general; ordinary,” but the origin is totally unrelated as you can see on the right side.

Now let us summarize the two posts in which we have looked at kanji that originated from a person doing something with two hands. By the way the shape is called /geki/ but there is absolutely no need for us to know. We have two tables to help us for our review:

Table1History of Kanji Component 丸凡

Table 1 shows:

(1) We now know what the original shape of the kanji component 丸 or 凡 looked like – it was a kneeling person with his two hands reaching forward. From that the kanji component 丸 or 凡 pertains to an act that one does using two hands.

Table 2 Four Comibination Types of 丸凡

Table 2 shows the following:

(2) There are four types of shapes that appear on the left side of 丸 or 凡, each forming a different meaning.

Type A, in the kanji 熱勢藝 (芸), had a plant to grow on the left side. Together they pertained to hands used to grow a plant, rigorously and skillfully.

Type B, in the kanji 執摯, had a handcuff on the left side. Together they pertained to the authority to carry out a job or the manner of carrying out a job.

Type C, in the kanji (孰)熟塾, had a cooking stove on the left side. Together they pertained to heat or to heat up thoroughly.

Type D, in the kanji 築恐, had a craft or tool on the left side. Together they pertained to building or casting spell with a tool to instill “fear.”

I will not be able to post an article for the next two or three weeks but hope to resume in June. Thank you very much for your interest in reading this blog. Noriko Williams  [May 16, 2015]

The Kanji 丸熱勢芸土執摯幸 – the component 丸凡 (1)

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In the last post we looked at the kanji that originated from a baby. Now we return to a posture made by an adult, but this time with two additional arms in focus — “a person kneeling down with his arms stretching forward.” What he was doing using the two hands is the focus of this and the next posts. It may be a little messy because these kanji look so alike, and some kanji are outside the 1100 kanji that I discuss (but they are mostly Joyo kanji, and therefore are used regularly).

kanjicomponent丸The kanji we are going to look at — 熱勢芸(藝)執摯孰熟塾築恐 — had the common shape of either 丸 or 凡 on the right side or upper right side of the kanji. They came from the same ten style shape, as shown on the right side in red. In ten style in the middle are two hands, and the long contour that surrounded the two hands was a person kneeling down. There are at least four different components that were teamed up with this shape. We are going to look at them as [A. Top of the kanji 熱勢芸(藝)] and [B. 執 in 執摯] in this post, and the components [C. 享 in 孰熟塾] and [D. 凡 in 築恐] in the next post.

1. The kanji 丸 “round; whole”

History of Kanji 丸Before we begin to look at the component 丸 in kanji, we need to know that this shape standing alone is the kanji 丸 /maru/. The kanji 丸 came from a totally different origin, and is not related to kanji that takes 丸 as its component. The history of the kanji 丸 is shown on the left. In both bronze ware style, in green, and ten style, in red, it was a person with his back bending forward facing a cliff. From a body in a coiled up position under a cliff, it meant “round.” In Japanese, a round shape also meant “whole; entirety.” The kun-yomi /maru/ means “circle” and is in 丸い (“round“ /marui/) and 丸焼き (“roasting whole” /maruyaki/), 丸ごと (“whole; altogether” /marugoto/), 丸つぶれ (“complete destruction; utter failure” /marutsubure/), and 日の丸 (“Japanese rising sun flag” /hinomaru/). The on-yomi /ga’n/ is in 弾丸 (“bullet” /dangan/).

Now we begin our exploration of 丸 as a kanji component.

A “Plant and soil” in 熱勢藝(芸)

History of Kanji 熱勢芸(藝)の上部The writing whose development of  is shown on the left side is not a kanji in Japanese. Since Some kanji only have ten style writing, this  well-documented writing helps us to understand the development of the shapes and meaning of the kanji that we are interested in now.

In oracle bone style, (a) and (b), and in bronze ware style, (c), it had a person who was kneeling down as he held a young plant in a pot with two hands. In kanji origin, doing something with both hands generally signified “with care and attention,” as we have seen in the earlier posts about two hands. So, these writings meant History of Kanji 土 (frame)“to take care of a young plant carefully.” From sample (d) on, the plant was placed on the ground (土) directly. The bulge we see under a plant in (d) signified a lump of soil to celebrate the god of the earth, as shown in the development of the kanji 土 shown on the right. The right side of (d) looks similar to a “dog” in ancient writing, but I cannot find any explanation in the references. In (e), the upper right was a crouched body with two hands and the lower right was a woman. In ten style, (f), the right side went back to having just a crouching person with two hands. In kanji shape, (g), the plant became 土 and ハ.  So the component A consist of 土, ハ, 土 and 丸 in kanji. It meant “to nurse a plant” and “hand skills to grow plants; hand skills.”

2. The kanji 熱 “heat; warm; hot”

History of Kanji 熱In the ten style writing of the kanji 熱, in addition to a plant on the ground and a person kneeling down with his two hands, it had 火 “fire” to signify “heat; warmth.” The writing we have just seen above (which is not a kanji now) was the original writing for this meaning. Plants grow better in a warm environment. Together they meant “warmth; heat.” In kanji, the bottom became the bushu called renga or rekka “fire,” which had four dots. We can view those four dots as small flames. Most writing that had “fire” at the bottom have this bushu in kanji. The kun-yomi is 熱い /atsu’i/ (“hot”). The on-yomi  熱 /netsu’/ means “heat” and is in 熱がある (“to have a fever” /netsu’ga aru/), 熱っぽく (“intently; enthusiastically” /netsuppo’ku/), 熱気 (“enthusiasm” /nekki/), and 熱狂的な (“exuberant; enthusiastic” /nekkyooteki-na/).

3. The kanji 勢 “vigor; momentum; impetus”

History of Kanji 勢In the ten style writing of the kanji 勢, in addition to a plant on the ground and a person kneeling down with his two hands, a plough or hoe was added at the bottom. Together they signified that by using a plough or hoe to till the soil plants grew vigorously. As we have discussed, the kanji 力 came from either “strong hand” or “plough; hoe.” In this writing,  力 makes sense to view this as a tool to cultivate the field, a plough or hoe. It meant “vigor; momentum; impetus.”

The kun-yomi /ikio’i/ “rigor” is in 勢いのいい (“vigorous; to have good momentum” /ikioi-no-i’i/). The on-yomi /se’e/ is in 勢力 (“power; force” /se’eryoku/), 加勢する (“to support; back up” /kasee-suru/), and 気勢をそぐ (“to discourage” /kisee-o so’gu/). Another on-yomi /ze’e/ is in 大勢 (“many people” /oozee/ as a noun; /ooze’e de/ as an adjective). Two different word accent patterns, depending on how it is used in a sentence.

4. The kanji 芸 (藝) “skill; art”

History of Kanji 芸 (藝)The kyujitai 藝 of the shinjitai kanji 芸 has a fuller documentation than 熱 and 勢, as shown on the left. In oracle bone style, the two samples were almost identical to what we saw in (a) and (b) above. The bronze ware style and ten style samples were exactly the same, suggesting that the two writings came from the same writing whose meaning had originally been more inclusive. In this writing, it meant “skills and art for which one used hands.” In the kyujitai, in blue, the bushu kusakanmuri “plants” was added at the top, which came from the original meaning of growing plants. At the bottom the shape 云 was also added. Hmm… What does the shape 云 mean? We wonder.

The Kadokawa dictionary says that it came from the kanji 耘 “to cut grass” (耘 is not a Joyo kanji, but is used in 耕耘機 /koou’nki/ “tilling machine”). Shirakawa says 耘 is not related, but he did not explain why 云 was added. So, using my miniscule brain and knowledge I have to come up with something. The kanji 云 originally came from “clouds rising” and meant “cloud.” For the kanji 雲 “cloud,” later on the bushu amekanmuri (雨) “meteorological phenomenon, such as rain that falls from the sky” was added. So, could it mean that the plants grew like clouds? I only speculate – I do not have the answer. (The kanji 云 is sometimes used to mean “to say” as in 云う /iu/, but it was just a borrowing.) In shinjitai, the entire component of “two hands growing plants; hand skills that enable to grow plants or create art” disappeared, and became 芸. It has become an empty shape and does not convey much content. It is ironic that what matters most to its meaning was dropped entirely.

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 芸 /ge’e/ means “skill; art,” and in 芸術 (“art; fine arts” /geejutsu/), 芸人 (“performer; entertainer” /geenoo/), 芸能 (“performing art” /geenoo/), 手芸 (“needle craft” /shugee/), and 園芸 (“gardening” /engee/), which originated this writing in the first place.

B. 執 “to grab; have a power to carry out”

5. The kanji 執 “to grab; have a power to carry out”

History of Kanji 執The component B type has 幸 in the kanji 執 and 摯. The kanji 執 is also well documented as shown on the left. In oracle bone style, (a) and (b), a person kneeling down was putting his hands out to get his hands shackled. Restraining a criminal with hand shackles signified “to retain; take; grab” and it signified the authority’s act. You might say, “Wait! The kanji 幸 means good luck or happiness. How is it related to the meaning a hand shackle or handcuff?” The story of the kanji 幸 has a twist. Let us make a little detour on this.

History of Kanji 幸 (frame)The history of the kanji 幸 is shown on the right side. In the two oracle bone style writing samples, the symmetrical shape vertically placed was a handcuff for two hands locked on the both sides. It meant “calamity; misfortune” — to be caught as a criminal. In ten style, it took different components – the top was a person being struck in the head 夭 (do you see his head tilted?), and the bottom was the ten style shape for the kanji 逆 “reverse,” which originated from a person upside down.  A reversal of one’s calamity meant “good luck.” It means “luck; happiness.”

Now back to the kanji 執. So, from having the meaning of a prisoner putting his hands out to be shackled, the writing was used for an action by the authority. The kun-yomi is 執る (“to assume the power” /to’ru/). The on-yomi /shi’tsu/ is in 執務中 (“at work; during work” /shitsumu-chuu/), 執権 (“regent” /shikken/), 刑の執行 (“execution of punishment” /ke’e-no shikkoo/), and 執刀 (“surgical operation” /shittoo/). Another on-yomi /shu’u/ is used in words that involve holding onto something for a long time, such as 執念深い (“vengeful; spiteful” /shuunenbuka’i/) and 執着する (“to be deeply attached” /shuuchaku-suru/).

6. The kanji 摯 “very earnest; very sincere”

History of Kanji 摯This kanji was added to the Joyo Kanji list in 2010. It is used in only one but an important word – 真摯な (“very earnest: very sincere” /shi’nshi-na/), the virtue that Japanese culture values. (When I agreed to write a letter of recommendation in Japanese for my student, the word 真摯 was certainly essential in writing a positive letter.) The selection of the government kanji list usually focuses on how productive a kanji is in terms of making up words. The kanji 摯 is so limited in use that it had been excluded from the old Joyo Kanji list.

We have two oracle bone style samples shown above. In them on the upper right corner do you see a hand placed above the person kneeling?  This extra hand is the key to this kanji. It signified “to grab a person or matter by hand firmly.” The kanji 摯 means “to grab something and work on it seriously.” In ten style, a grabbing hand was moved to the bottom.

We will continue to discuss more kanji that came from a person sitting down with his two hands stretched out in the next post. [May 9, 2015]

The Kanji 子字学孫孝身射謝

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In this post, we are going to look at the kanji that contain the image of a “baby” (子) in 子字学孫孝保 and a “pregnant woman” (身) in 身射謝.

1. The kanji 子 “child”

History of Kanji 子In oracle bone style, in brown, bronze ware style, in green, and ten style, in red, it was a baby. Of a large number of samples available in reference there are two different types if we look at what the baby’s hands are doing. (a) and (c) have two arms in the same manner whereas (b) and (d) have one arm upward and the other downward. Shirakawa noted, with some reference to the ancient documents, that the second type meant a “prince.” Here we simply take them as the two wiggly hands of a baby. The kanji 子 meant “child.” It is also used for something that was produced from something else, such as interest from capital.

The kun-yomi /ko/ is in 子供 (“child” /kodomo/), どこの子 (“whose child” /do’ko-no-ko), 男の子 (“boy; male child” /otoko’noko/). The on-yomi /shi/ is in 女子 (“young women; girls” /jo’shi/), 弟子 (“disciple; student in traditional art” /deshi’/), 利子 (“financial interest” /ri’shi/), 子音 (“consonant” /shiin/). Another on-yomi /su/ is in 椅子 (“chair” /isu/).

2 The kanji 字 “writing; letter; character”

History of Kanji 字Placing a baby inside a house created the writing 字. A child was born in a house and was given a called name (字 /azana/) before getting a formal name. The writing for the name was used to mean “writing.” Also, writing was created one after another starting with a simple one, like a child being born. The kanji 字 means “writing; letter; character.”

The kun-yomi /azana/ means “called name; nickname” and /a’za/ was a small section of town in olden days. The on-yomi /ji/ is in 文字 (“writing; letter; character” /mo’ji/), 数字 (“figure; numeral” /suuji/), 字幕 (“subtitle; superimposed dialogue” /jimaku/), 字体 (“typeface; print; font type” /jitai/). In a tanka poem (5-7-5-7-7 syllables) and haiku poem (5-7-5 syllable), if a phrase exceeds the set syllable number, it is called 字余り (“poem with an extra syllable” /jia’mari/). (Technically speaking, in Japanese it is not a syllable but a mora, 拍 /ha’ku/.)

3. The kanji 学 “to learn; study”

History学The kanji 学 has the kyujitai 學. In oracle bone style (1), the top was two hands or people mingling (an “x” shape in the middle), and the bottom was a house. In bronze ware style (2) a child was added inside the house. Together they signified caring hands of adults helping children to learn in a schoolhouse. From a place of learning for children it meant “to learn.” The tops of the ten style (3) and kyujitai writings (4) were the same as those of the kanji 覚 [as discussed in the April 12, 2015, post.] The kun-yomi /mana/ is in 学ぶ (“to learn; study” /manabu/) and 学び舎 (“place of learning” [poetic style] /manabiya/). The on-yomi /ga’ku/ is in 通学する (“to commute to school” /tsuugaku-suru/) and 学習 (“learning; study” /gakushuu/) and /gatt/ is in 学校 (“school” /gakkoo/), 小学校 (“elementary school” /shooga’kkoo/).

4. The kanji 孫 “grandchild”

History of Kanji 孫In oracle bone style and bronze ware style, the left side was a child, and the bottom right was a string of silk cocoons or skein of threads. A thread is long and continuous, so it signified “continuity.” In ten style the right side became the kanji 系 “connection,” which had an additional stroke to the kanji 糸 “thread.”

History of Kanji 系(frame)The history of the kanji 系 is shown on the right side – It started as many strings of silk cocoons or skeins pulled together by a hand at the top. Holding many strings together signified “to unite; connect.” In ten style the hand got simplified to a single stroke, and a single skein of threads.

With the two kanji 子 and 系 together, they meant a child who was connected, that is “grandchild; off-spring.” The kun-yomi /mago’/ means “grandchild” and is in ひ孫 (“great-grandchild” /himago/)” and 孫娘 (“granddaughter” /magomu’sume/). The on-yomi /so’n/ is in 子孫 (“descendant” /shi’son/).

5. The kanji 孝 “filial duty”

History of Kanji 孝(frame)We have discussed the kanji 孝 along with the kanji 考 and 老 in the January 30, 2015, post. The common component among those kanji is called a bushu oigashira and meant “old; long time.” In the development of the kanji 孝, shown on the right, in all of the ancient style writings it had a long-haired old man stooping over at the top. Underneath that was a child. A child taking care of old parents meant “filial responsibility.” There is no kun-yomi for this kanji and the on-yomi /ko’o/ is used in a very limited way such as in 親孝行 (“filial duty; kind to one’s parents” ‘oyako’okoo/) and 忠孝 (“loyalty and filial responsibility” /chu’ukoo/).

6. The kanji 保 “to keep; maintain; protect”

History of Kanji 保The kanji 保 does not have 子 in the kanji, but in ancient writings it was unmistakably present. So, let us look at this kanji here too. The oracle bone style and the first bronze ware style samples were picture-like — an adult holding a baby in her arms. It originally meant “to care for an infant; protect.” Another bronze ware style writing sample on the right was from a later time (third century, A.D.), and it had a person on the left and an infant with a caring hand, or possibly a diaper, at the bottom right. In ten style, the right side was “a baby with diapers on.” So, from a person caring for a baby, it meant “to keep; maintain; protect.”

The kun-yomi 保つ /tamo’tsu/ means “to keep; maintain.” The on-yomi /ho/ is in 保険 (“insurance” /hoken/), 保母 (“nursery school teacher” /ho’bo/) and 保存する (“to preserve” /hozon-suru/). [Oh, did you just notice that 保存する contained 子 in 存?  子 in this case was just used phonetically to mean “to exist.”]

7.  The kanji 身 “body; person”

History of Kanji 身The kanji 身 was an image of a pregnant woman with a large belly who was viewed from the side. The fullness of a body was extended to mean “one’s body; own life; flesh.” The meaning of pregnancy was dropped. The kun-yomi 身 /mi/ means “body; person; one’s life,” and is in 身内 (“relatives; family” /miuchi/), 身軽な (“agile” /migaruna/), 身の上話 (“one’s life story” /minoueba’nashi/) and 身分 (“one’s social standing or status” /mi’bun/). The on-yomi /shi’n/ is in 自身 (“self; oneself” /ji’shin/) and 出身地 (“one’s hometown” /shusshi’nchi/).

8. The kanji 射 “to shoot”

History of Kanji 射The kanji 射 is comprised of two kanji, 身 and 寸. However, it has no relationship with 身 in meaning or sound, as the oracle bone and bronze ware style writings on the left demonstrate. In these two styles, it was an arrow on a bow being pulled by a hand. It meant “to shoot an arrow.” In ten style, the dilated shape of the bow was “mistakenly” taken as the same as the origin of 身. In kanji the original meaning of an arrow and a bow in oracle bone and bronze ware styles was kept, and it meant “to shoot.” The kun-yomi 射る /i’ru/ means “to shoot an arrow,” and is in 射止める (“to shoot; win; gain” /itome’ru/). The on-yomi /sha/ is in 発射する (“to fire; discharge” /hassha-suru/).

9. The kanji 謝 “to apologize; thankful”

History of Kanji 謝The kanji 謝 is the kanji 射 with a bushu gonben “words; language” added on the left. The bronze ware style writing was the same as 射. Here 射 was used phonetically to mean “to forgive.” Together with the additional meaning of “words,” they meant “to apologize; to be thankful.” The kun-yomi 謝る /ayama’ru/ means “to apologize,” and is in 平謝りに謝る (“to make a humble apology profusely” /hiraayamari-ni ayama’ru/). The on-yomi /sha/ is in 感謝する (“to be grateful; thank; appreciate” /ka’nsha-suru/), 月謝 (“monthly tuition” /gessha/), 謝罪 (“apology” /shazai) and 謝恩セール (“customer appreciation sale” /shaonse’eru/).

For the next post, I am thinking about the kanji 執熱熟塾芸 and 丸. Until I started to write the Key to Kanji, it had never occurred to me that the first five kanji had a “person.” [May 2, 2015]