We are continuing to look at kanji that contain a bushu shinnyoo. In this post we are going to look at the kanji 迎逆連軍運過速束込入.
The kanji 迎 “to welcome”
For the kanji 迎, the left side in ten style, in red, was a composite of two elements, a crossroad (the three hooked lines from the left half of a crossroad) and a footprint. Together they meant “to move along (beyond a crossroad)” and became a bushu shinnyoo in kanji. The center was a person standing, facing right. By having the component that meant “to move along” right behind him we can imagine that he had travelled. On the right side was another person bowing to his visitor in a humble posture. Altogether they meant “to welcome.”
The kun-yomi 迎える /mukaeru/ means “to receive (person)” and is in 迎えに行く (“to go to pick up someone” /mukae’niiku/). The on-yomi /ge’e/ is in 歓迎 (“welcome” /kangee/) and 送迎バス (“pickup bus” /soogeeba’su/).
The kanji 逆 “to reverse; wrong way; backward”
For the kanji 逆, in oracle bone style, in brown, the left side was a person upside down, and the right side was a crossroad. In bronze ware style, in green, the upside down person and crossroad switched their positions and a footprint was added at the bottom. There are a couple of different views on this. One is that “an upside down person” signified “reverse,” and with “to move along” a person went backward. From that it meant “to reverse; wrong way; backward.” Another is by Shirakawa, who said that an upside down person with a crossroad signified a person coming toward another person who was standing on his foot. Together they originally meant “to receive someone.” Then the writing was borrowed to mean “reverse.” Although I find this view, of an upside down person signifying a movement toward you, intriguing, I would like to think about this more in relation to other kanji that originated an upside down image.
The on-yomi 逆さ /sakasa/ means “upside down; backward.” The on-yomi /gyaku/ is 逆に (“conversely; vice verse” /gyakuni/), 反逆 (”revolt” /hangyaku/).
The kanji 連 “to link; accompany; continuous”
For the kanji 連 the bronze ware style sample had a crossroad on the left. The right side had two vehicles connected, and a footprint at the bottom. Together they signified a convoy of vehicles. In ten style the footprint moved to the left and aligned with the crossroad. On the right side there was only one vehicle. From many vehicles moving forward in a connected way it meant “to link; to accompany; continuous.”
The kun-yomi 連れる /tsureru/ means “to bring (someone) with,” and is 連れてくる (“to bring someone” /tsureteku’ru/), 二人連れ (“a party of two” /hutarizure/ ふたりづれ) and 親子連れ (“a parent and a child” /oyakozure/ おやこづれ). The on-yomi /re’n/ is in 連絡する (“to contact; inform” /renraku-suru/), 一連の (“a series of” /ichiren-no/).
The kanji 運 “to carry; transport; luck” and 軍 “military; troops”
The kanji 軍 — Before the kanji 運, let us look at its component 軍 first because 軍 came before 運. On the right we have two bronze ware style writings. Both had 車 “vehicle.” The question is, what the top of or around the vehicle was about. The left bronze ware style sample was explained as a military flag that marked where the military vehicles were. This shape was similar to a flag for a clan in the kanji such as 族, 旅 and 旗, so it has an appeal to me. Another explanation is that the encircling line (勹 in ten style) simply meant “to wrap around,” and the kanji meant soldiers encircling military vehicles. Either way the kanji 軍 meant “military.” In kanji, the short line at the top was lost, possibly to differentiate it from a ukanmuri (宀) “house.” The shape above 車 is called a /waka’nmuri/, from a katakana ワ and /kanmuri/ “crown.”
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /gu’n/ means “army; troops,” and is in 軍人 (“military personnel” /gunjin/), 陸軍 (“army; land forces” /riku’gun/), 軍隊 (“military forces; troops” /gu’ntai/).
For the kanji 運, a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward” and 軍 “military” that was used phonetically signified to “transport military equipment.” It meant “to transport.” Because a luck comes around, it also meant “luck.”
The kun-yomi /hakobu/ means “to carry; transport.” The on-yomi /u’n/ is in 運動 (“movement; exercise” /undo/), 運賃 (“fair” /u’nchin/), 運のいい (“fortunate; lucky” /u’n-no-ii/).
The kanji 過 “to pass through; excessive; mistake”
For the kanji 過 in the bronze ware style, in addition to a crossroad and a footprint we see an unusual shape at the top right. It was explained in references as “joint of bones of a deceased person.” Together with “to move along” they meant “to pass through.” Something that goes through could easily end up being excessive, which also may result in a mistake. From that it also meant “excessive; making a mistake.” The kanji 過 means “to pass through; excessive; mistake.”
The kun-yomi /sugi’ru/ means “to pass through” and is in 食べ過ぎる (“to overeat” /tabesugiru.) Another kun-yomi 過ち /ayama’chi/ means “mistake; fault; sin.” The on-yomi /ka/ is in 過去 (“past” /ka’ko/), 過激派 (“radicals; extremist group” /kagekiha/), 超過料金 (“excessive charges” /chookaryo’okin/).
The kanji 速 “fast” and 束 “bundle”
For the kanji 速 in bronze ware style, the top was stuff tied with a rope and the bottom was a crossroad which was used phonetically to mean “speedy.” The bottom had a crossroad and footprint, the makings of a shinnyoo. In ten style the tied stuff with strings became 束. Together they meant “fast.”
The kun-yomi /haya’i/ means “fast.” The on-yomi /so’ku/ is in 速度 (“speed” /so’kudo/), 早速 (“at once; right away” /sassoku/), 速達 (“special delivery” /sokutatsu/) and 快速電車 (“rapid train” /kaisokude’nsha/).
The kanji 束-– The upper right component of 速 by itself is the kanji 束. For 速, all of the ancient writing styles was a bundle of stuff tied together. It meant “to bundle.” The kun-yomi /ta’ba/ means “a bundle,” and is in 束ねる (“to bundle up” /tabane’ru/) and 花束 (“flower bouquet” /hana’taba/).
7. The kanji 込 “to come into; become crowded” and 入 “to enter”
The kanji 込 is kokuji, a kanji that was created in Japan; therefore no ancient writing existed. All kokuji are semantic composites. The kanji 込 was created by combining 入 “to enter or to put in” and a bushu しんにょう “to move forward.” It meant “to put something in.” When you put too many things in, it becomes crowded. So it also means “to be crowded.”
The kun-yomi /ko/ is in 込む (“to become crowded” /ko’mu/), 込める (“to put in; charge; concentrate” /kome’ru/), 閉じ込める (“to lock in; confine” /tojikome’ru/), 入り込む (“to come into; gain an entrance to” /hairiko’mu/) and 申し込み (“application” /mooshikomi/). Being a kokuji, it does not have an on-yomi.
The kanji 入 In all ancient styles, it was the shape of an entrance to a house. It meant “to enter.” In kanji you write the shorter stroke towards the left first.
We will continue more kanji with a shinnyoo in the next post. [December 13, 2015]