The Kanji 廷建健延誕再構講-えんにょう and 再

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In this post we are going to look at two shapes — a bushu ennyoo (), which appears in the kanji 廷建健延誕, and the shape 再, which appears in the kanji 再構講.

  1. The Kanji 廷 “court; courtyard”

History of Kanji 廷The kanji 廷 had a number of bronze ware style samples, suggesting that it was an important writing in ancient times. I have picked three of them to copy by hand (in green).  In (a), the right side was a standing person with his hands put forward above a mound of soil on the ground. (In worshiping the god of the earth, a mound of soil was placed on the ground.) In (c) the soil became a line under the person, signifying the ground on which he stood, and under his hands there were a couple of diagonal lines, signifying rice wine being sprinkled to sanctify the ground. Among all three samples of bronze ware style, (a), (b) and (c), the lower left was a wall around an area where the ceremony took place. Shirakawa explained that was a wall viewed from above. Altogether the writing signified a part of the imperial court where a certain sanctifying rite was conducted. From that it meant “court; imperial court.”

In ten style, in red, the upper right was a person standing on the ground. How do we view the lower left shape, which was no longer a single bent line? I tend to think now that it was the shape in which two elements coalesced. One element was the bending wall that we see in bronze ware style samples, and another was crossroad.” (The crossroad appeared in the bronze ware style sample of the kanji 建.) In kanji it became a three-stroke shape, with a wiggly line and a line that stretches to the right. This shape is called a bushu ennyoo — /En/ is from the kanji 延, and /nyo’o/ is a component name that starts on the left side and stretches to the bottom right. A bushu ennyoo means “to stretch; extend.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /te’e/ is in 宮廷 (“imperial court” /kyuutee/) and 法廷 (“court of law; courtroom” /hootee/).

History of Kanji 庭 (frame)The kanji 庭 has been discussed earlier in connection with a bushu madare “house with one side open; court yard” (The Kanji 庫席広庭序店座床-まだれ, on June 27, 2015.) A bushu madare and 廷 together the kanji 庭 meant “courtyard garden” or just “garden.”

  1. The Kanji 建 “to build”

History of Kanji 建For the kanji 建, the top of (a) in bronze ware style was a hand holding a writing brush, and in (b) soil was attached to the brush. Also in (a), the bottom had a crossroad and a footprint at the bottom, whereas in (b) the bent shape that signified a court wall appeared. These two different shapes in bronze ware style in (a) and (b) gave me the reason for me to think that the ten style shape was a coalescence of the two meanings that I have just mentioned in discussing the kanji 廷 in 1. The writing signified one holding a writing brush upright to decide where in the courtyard they should build a building. From that it meant “to build.”

The kun-yomi 建てる /tate’ru/ means “to build.” The on-yomi /ke’n/ is in 建築 (“building” /kenchiku/) and 建設 (“construction; founding” /kensetsu/). There is another on-yomi /ko’n/, a goon, that is used to refer to building a Buddhism temple, 建立 (“erection; building” /konryuu/). /Ryu’u/ for 立 is also a go-on, as you would expect.

  1. The Kanji 健 “healthy; praiseworthiness”

History of Kanji 健For the kanji 健, the ten style sample had a person on the left (a bushu ninben). The right side 建 “to build,” with an upright writing brush, signified someone standing with his back straight. It was used to mean “good health” and also “bravely; praiseworthily.”

The kun-yomi 健やか /suko’yaka/ means “to be in good health.” Another kun-yomi 健気な /kenagena/ means “brave; praiseworthy.” The on-yomi /ke’n/ is in 健康 (“one’s health”/kenkoo/), 健忘症 (“being forgetful” /kenbooshoo/), 健全な (“wholesome; healthy; sound” /kenzenna/).

  1. The Kanji 延 “to stretch; postpone; extend”

History of Kanji 延For the kanji 延, the upper right component of the ten style sample had a slanted stroke over a footprint, which signified a stretched stride. The lower left was what we have already discussed – either a crossroad whose one end was pulled to the right; or a court wall stretching. Either way it signified “a stretched way.” Together they meant “to extend; postpone.”

The kun-yomi 延びる /nobi’ru/ or its transitive verb counterpart 延ばす /noba’su/ means “to stretch; postpone; extend.” The on-yomi /e’n/ is in 延長 (“extension” /enchoo/) and 延期する (”to postpone” /enki-suru/).

  1. The Kanji 誕 “to be born”

History of Kanji 誕The kanji 誕 has a story that has a sense of humor. The story started in bronze ware style – the top was a footstep stretched long vertically, and the small dot on the upper right and a angle line at the bottom was a crossroad split on the top. This is an odd shape that I have not seen anywhere else so far. The writing meant “to stretch.” In ten style 言, a bushu gonben “word,” was added. Together from stretching words they meant “telling a tall story; to brag.” Very clever, isn’t it. But this original meaning of “bragging” is rarely used now. Later on it came to be used for an unrelated meaning of “to be born.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ta’n/ is in 誕生日 (“birthday” /tanjo’obi/) and 生誕百年 (“a centennial of birth of someone famous” /seetan-hyaku’nen/).

Now we move to another shape. The next three kanji 構講 and 再 originated from a shape of a braided rope or string.

  1. The Kanji 構 “structure; to construct”

History of Kanji 構The kanji 構 had two similar oracle bone style samples, in brown. If we look at the top portion and the bottom portion back and forth, we begin to see that they are the mirror images of each other. According the Shirakawa, they were shapes of braided ropes. (I will come back to this point in 8.) The writing signified “to connect two shapes.” For the kanji 構, in ten style time, 木 “wood” was added. Together they meant wooden configuration that repeated the same patterns that people constructed. It meant “structure; to construct.”

The kun-yomi 構える /kamae’ru/ means “to assume a posture; set up a house,” and is in 身構える (“to stand ready; be poised to defend oneself” /migamae’ru/). The on-yomi /ko’o/ is in 構築する (“to build” /koochiku-suru/), 構成 (“construction; composition” /koosee/) and 構図 (“composition” /koozu/).

  1. The Kanji 講 “to lecture; talk”

History of Kanji 講The kanji 講 has only a ten style sample. The right was used phonetically for /ko’o/ to mean “to connect two things,” and the left side had 言 “word; language.” Together “people reconnected by talking” gave the meaning “to reconcile; lecture; talk.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ko’o/ is in 講堂 (“lecture hall; hall” /koodoo/), 講義 (“lecture” /ko’ogi/) and 講習 (“training session” /kooshuu/).

Other Joyo kanji that contain the right side of 構 and 講 include 溝 “furrow; groove; ditch” and 購 “to buy.” The right side was used phonetically for /ko’o/.

  1. The Kanji 再 “again; to repeat”

History of Kanji 再For the kanji 再 we have an oracle bone style sample, (a), and two bronze ware style samples, (b) and (c). (a) showed the shape of a braided rope, and the sideways line at the top. This line at the top indicated the spot where one turned around in making a braided rope. A return signified “again.” The shape of braiding was essentially same as those in the kanji 構 and 講. In bronze ware style, however, it is somewhat not straightforward to view them as a braiding shape. (b) had three lines at the top whereas (c) had two lines inside, signifying “double; to repeat.” From that the kanji 再 meant “to repeat; again.”

In this article I have taken the view that that the right component of 構 and 講 was made by a rope. On the other hand, Setsumon explained it as wooden building materials. It also explained the line at the top in (d) in 再 differently — as a truncation to simplify the full bottom configuration. I followed that view in the Key to Kanji. I am rethinking the Setsumon’s explanation. We see two mirror images in full in the two oracle bone style samples of the kanji 構. Was it really necessary to cut off the top shape of something built and replace it with a single line for the meaning “to repeat”? Viewing the materials as string or rope as the turning point in braiding, rather than wooden materials to build a structure and use a single line at the top, now sounds more appealing to me. This is still not conclusive by any means.

The kun-yomi 再び /hutatabi/ means “again.” The on-yomi /sa’i/ is in 再開する (“to reopen” /saikai-suru/), 再現 (“reenactment” /saigen/) and 再出発 (“restart; a fresh start” /saishu’ppatsu/).

In the two next posts we are continuing with the human habitats theme. I would like to discuss how the kanji 京, 高 and 亭 were originally closely related, and how the kanji 尚 is used in a number of kanji (mostly phonetically). [January 31, 2016]

The Kanji 道導述帝適敵通造ーしんにょう(4)

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  1. The kanji 道 “road” and 導 “to guide”

History of Kanji 導The kanji 道 and 導 have been discussed in an earlier post in connection with a physical feature (The Kanji 民眠盲衆自面首道導 on June 6, 2015) – The upper right component 首 was a head with hair. The two kanji shared the same bronze ware style writing, in green, which consisted of a crossroad, inside which was a head with hair, and underneath was a hand. History of Kanji 道 (frame)Together they signified someone showing by hand the way to go, thus 導 meant “a hand guiding the way to go forward” or just “to guide.” (Ten style is in red.) Without a hand at the bottom it became the kanji 道 “road; way.” As I write this post I am wondering if the two Japanese words みち /michi/ and みちびく /michibi’ku/ existed before the kanji came to Japan and shared the same cognates, too. The word /hiku/ means “to draw; to pull; lead.” Another scenario is that the word みちびく came after the kanji introduction. To look into which was a historical fact is a totally different endeavor. For us in vocabulary study keeping in mind this possible relationship between みち and みちびく may be useful.

  1. The kanji 述 “to state”

History of Kanji 述When we looked at the kanji 術 three months ago in the post entitled the kanji 行街術衛 – ゆきがまえ (October 17, 2015), 術 was explained in two ways, depending on how the middle 朮 was explained. One explanation of 朮 from Setsumon was that “sticky millets around the stalk.” Another, by Shirakawa, was an “animal that was used to exorcise an evil spirit on a road.” Unlike 術, 述 had a bronze ware style sample, but it still does not give us a definitive answer – it looks like the top of the millet stalk drooping with grain, but it also looks like an animal. (One problem with Shirakawa’s account is that many kanji scholars seem to be skeptical of the existence of such magic practice.) Whatever the origin was, the kanji 朮 (it is not a Joyo kanji) meant もちあわ “sticky millet,” and in both kanji 術 and 述, it was used phonetically for /jutsu/. For us it is more convenient to understand 述 as one following what had been said, thus “to reiterate; state.”

The kun-yomi 述べる /nobe’ru/ means “to state; say.” The on-yomi /ju’tsu/ is in 述語 (“predicate” /jutsugo/), 記述する (“to describe; write down” /kijutsu-suru/), and 前述の (“aforementioned” /zenjutsu-no/).

The kanji 帝 “imperial,” 適 “suitable” and 敵 “enemy; foe” — In order to discuss the kanji 適 and its related kanji 敵, it would be helpful to look at the kanji 帝. I would have never imagined that those kanji would lead us to the kanji 帝, until I wrote about the two kanji 適 and 敵 for the Key to Kanji.

  1. The kanji 帝 “emperor; imperial”

History of Kanji 帝For the kanji 帝 in both of the two samples in oracle bone style, in brown, it was an altar table that had three crossed legs for stability. It was the most important altar table to place offerings for the ancestral gods and gods of nature. It signified the highest god that ruled the universe. From that it came to be used for “emperor; imperial.” In bronze ware style, the top, for most likely offerings, got separated. In kanji the bottom 巾 is probably the remnant of stabilizing three legs.

The kun-yomi 帝 /mikado/ means “emperor.” The on-yomi /te’i/ is in 皇帝 (“emperor” /kootee/), 帝国 (“empire” /te’ikoku/) and 帝国主義 (“imperialism” /teikokushu’gi/).

  1. The kanji 適 “suitable” and 敵 “enemy; foe”

History of Kanji 適The history of the kanji 適 and 敵 is shown on the left. The two kanji in bronze ware style were basically the same: The top was what the kanji 帝 was and the bottom was 口 “words; a prayer box.” Together they signified someone who could say a prayer in conducting the most important worship rite of the ancestral gods, that is, a legitimate heir to the throne. History of Kanji 敵When a bushu onnaben was added on the left side, it became the kanji 嫡 /cha’ku/, in words such as 嫡子 (“legitimate son or daughter; heir”/cha’kushi/). Now let us look at the kanji 適 and 敵.

The kanji 適 -In ten style the kanji 適 had the makings of a shinnyoo “to move forward” on the left side. Together from something that can move on it meant “to fit; suitable.” The kun-yomi 適う /kana’u/ means “suitable; qualified.” The on-yomi /teki/ is in 適当な (“suitable; fit” /tekitoo-na/), which is also used in the opposite meaning of “irresponsible.” It is also in 適応する (to adapt” /tekioo-suru/), 快適な (“confortable” /kaiteki-na/), 適材適所 (“the right person in the right position” /tekizaite’kisho/).

The kanji 敵 – In ten style the right side was a bushu bokuzukuri 攵 “to take an action; beat.” Together they meant someone who was a good match to be one’s enemy, or someone who was against the heir to the throne whom one should fight against, thus “enemy; foe.” The kanji 敵 means “enemy; foe” and also “to match; equal; rival.” It also retained the original meaning of “to fit.” The kun-yomi is 敵 /kataki’/ “enemy; foe.” The on-yomi /teki/ also means “enemy; foe,” but the kun-yomi /kataki’/ is a more emotional, stronger word. It is also in 敵味方 (“friend and foe” /tekimikata/), 天敵 (“natural enemy” /tenteki/), 敵意 (“hostility” /te’kii/), 無敵の (“matchless” /mutaki-no/).

(There are a couple of more Joyo kanji that include the same component – 滴 “drop,” and 摘 “to pick.” The component was used solely phonetically.)

  1. The kanji 通 “to pass through”

History of Kanji 通For the kanji 通, we have two oracle bone style samples shown on the left. In addition to a crossroad on the left side, and a footprint on the right, it had the shape that later became 用. In bronze ware style, a round shape was added on 用, which became 甬 in kanji. Even though scholars seem to agree that 甬 signified an action in which something went through, thus it meant “through; to pass through,” what the shape originally was came from is not agreed. One view is that the top was a person stamping on a stick to push it through; another is that the top was a hand pail 手桶 whose cylindrical shape signified something “through”; yet another is that it was just used phonetically. Whatever the origin, the katakana マ shape and 用 formed a single meaningful unit. Together with a bushu shinnyoo, the kanji 通 meant “to pass through; go and come back regularly.”

The kun-yomi 通る /to’oru/ means “to pass through.” Another kun-yomi 通う /kayou/) means “to commute; go repeatedly.” The on-yomi /tsu’u/ is in 通学する (“to commute to school” /tsuugaku-suru/), 通路 (“passageway” /tsu’uro/), 通勤時間 (“commuting time” /tsuukinji’kan/), 交通 (“transportation; traffic” /kootsuu/), and 通話記録 (“call log” /tsuuwaki’roku/).

  1. The kanji 造 “to make; assemble”

History of Kanji 造The kanji 造 means “to  make; do; assemble.” There seem to be a number of different views on the origin, including that it was just a borrowing. One thing agreed upon is that the upper right was a miscopy and was not related to the kanji 告. The bronze ware style and ten style samples are shown on the left. I hate to leave it this way, but I do not see an account that would be helpful for us to learn.

The kun-yomi /tsuku’ru/ means “to make.” The on-yomi /zo’o/ is in 創造 (“creation” /soozoo/), 造作なく (“easily” /zoosana’ku/), 造詣の深い (“to have profound knowledge” /zookee-no-huka’i/).

For other kanji that contain a bushu shinnyoo, such as 遠, 違, 選 and 達, please read the earlier posts. This post concludes our exploration of shinnyoo kanji. We have seen in each one of the kanji that (1) a bushu shinnyoo originated from two discrete shape-meaning units of a crossroad, either one side or both sides, and a footprint. The two elements remained discrete items through ten style.  (2) In kanji the two elements coalesced into one.  (3) a bushu shinnyoo added the sense of setting off an action or moving forward to the component that provided another meaning or sound.

There are a few more shapes that originated from something in human habitats that I would like to look at. In the next two or three posts, I am thinking about 廴, a bushu ennyoo, and 京 “a house on top of a hill” among other shapes. [January 23, 2016]

The Kanji 送朕追師遺貴辺遅遊–しんにゅう(3)

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1 The kanji 送 “to send; forward”

History of Kanji 送For the kanji 送, in ten style, in red, the left side was a crossroad and a footstep vertically placed, which were the makings of a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward” later on. On the right side the top looked like a fire but it was an object instead (we will come back to this shape in the kanji 朕 below). The bottom was two hands, which signified a careful act using hands. Together they signified a person sending out an object with hands. Then the left side was added to emphasize a forward movement. The two sides together meant “to send something forward.”

The kun-yomi 送る /okuru/ means “to send,” and is in 送り先 (“recipient; addressee” /okurisaki/), 見送る (“to see someone off” /miokuru/), 見送りにする (“not to act now; shelve for now” /miokurini-suru/), 送り仮名 (“declensional kana ending in Japanese” /okurigana/). The on-yomi /so’o/ is in 送料 (“shipping charge” /so’oryoo/), 転送 (“transfer” /tensoo/), 郵送 (“sending by post” /yuusoo/) and 再放送 (“rebroadcasting” /saiho’osoo/).

The kanji  — This kanji is for an extremely exclusive use. Only an emperor uses this to talk about himself. It means “imperial We.” But it is not an unimportant kanji if you study Japanese history. Until the end of WWII, at every important school assembly the principal solemnly recited the Imperial Rescript on Education. It began as 朕惟フ二・朕思うに (/chi’n omo’oni/ “We. the emperor, believe that …”). So, the word 朕 was a familiar word among people of an older generation for a long time.

History of Kanji 朕The history of the kanji 朕 is shown on the right. In both oracle bone style, in brown, and bronze ware style, in green, the left side had a shallow bowl or a tray that could be used to transport things. (月 in this case is not “moon” or “flesh” but “tray; bowl.”) On the right side the vertical line with a bulge in the middle signified an object (a bulge was to emphasize that the shape was more than just a line), and the bottom had two hands holding up the object carefully. Together they meant a bowl that contained something was held carefully with both hands reverentially. Then it was used to mean “imperial We.” (Shirakawa thinks that it was just a borrowing because pronouns are all borrowing.) In ten style, the vertical line with a bulge took the shape of 火. In kanji the two elements on the right side coalesced and became simplified. The kanji 朕 means “I (imperial We)” [exclusively used by an emperor]. Another kanji that contains the upper right side of the kanji 送 and 朕 is the kanji 咲 (“a flower blooms” /saku/), but it appears to be a more recent kanji (no ancient writing available).

2 The kanji 追 “to chase after; add later” and 師 “teacher; military unit”

History of Kanji 追The upper right component in the kanji 追 and the left side of the kanji 師 share the same shape, not only in the kanji but also in oracle bone style and bronze ware style. Kanji scholars’ accounts on what it signified seem to differ. One view is that it was a stack of things or soil for a boundary. Another view is that it was bands of people and was phonetically used to mean “to follow” and “to add (something) afterwards.” And yet another view, which is by Shirakawa, is that it was two pieces of meat for offerings to the god to pray for a victory in a battle. The ritual with an offering was conducted wherever the military moved to fight a battle. Thus it meant “to follow.” From following it also meant “to add (something) afterwards.”

The kun-yomi 追う /ou/ means “to chase after” and is in 追いかける /oikake’ru/ and its colloquial form 追っかける (“to run after” /oikake’ru; okkake’ru/.) The on-yomi /tsu’i/ is in 追加 (“addition” /tsuika/), 追放する (“to expel; banish” /tsuihoo-suru/), 追突事故 (“car accident” /tsuitotsuji’ko/) and 追従する (“to servile to; follow” /tsuijuu-suru/).

History of Kanji 師2The kanji  –The two oracle bone style samples and the left bronze ware style writing sample shown on the right were the same as the components of 追. In the second bronze ware style writing a military flag was added on the right side. Together they meant a military division or its leader. In the military a leader is very important, From that it also meant a “mentor.” The kanji 師 meant “military unit; teacher; mentor.”

3 The kanji 遺 “to leave behind; bequest”

History of Kanji 遺For the kanji 遺, we have three bronze ware style writing samples here. The left most one consisted of two hands holding something carefully at the top, a crossroad on the left, signifying “to go,” and a cowry, signifying something valuable, at the bottom right. Together they meant someone leaving something precious behind after his death. The two other bronze ware style samples contained the same elements in a different layout. In ten style a crossroad and a footprint were aligned vertically to mean “to go forward,” and the right side was 貴 “precious; valuable.” The kanji 遺 means “to leave behind; bequest.”

The kun-yomi 遺す /noko’su/ means “to leave behind; bequest.” The on-yomi /i/ is in 遺族 (bereaved family; surviving family of a deceased), 遺産 (“inheritance” /isan/), 遺伝 (“hereditary transmission” /iden/), 遺伝子 (“gene” /ide’nshi/) and 遺憾ながら (“regrettably; I regret to say” /ikanna’gara/) [formal style]. Another on-yomi /yu’i/ is in 遺言 (one’s dying wish; one’s will /yuigon/).

History of Kanji 貴The kanji 貴–If you take the bushu shinnyoo out from the kanji 遺, we get the kanji 貴. Its ten style writing shown on the right had two hands over a container of valuable cowry with a lid. It signified “to handle something valuable carefully.” Precious cowries were kept in a container with a lid. Together they meant “precious; valuable.” The kanji 貴 is also used for people and it meant “noble.”

4 The kanji 辺 (邊) “peripheral; edge”

History of Kanji 辺The shinjitai kanji 辺 was a drastic change from its kyujitai邊. The kyujitai had 19 strokes and we can hardly make out the shape unless you enlarge the screen many times over. The writing in blue on the left side is the kyujitai. We have two bronze ware style writing samples here. The left one had a crossroad on the left. On the right side it had a face (自) at the top, a table (丙) in the middle and four directions (方) at the bottom, signifying peripheral areas in all four directions. Together they meant “edge of an area; peripheral.” In ten style a crossroad and a footprint were aligned vertically. The kyujitai had two short strokes in the shinnyoo. The kyujitai is still used in some family names, such as 渡邊 “Watanabe or Watabe” in a formal document even though they are likely to use the shinjitai in their daily life. For us, simply learning the shinjitai shape, which has 刀 “sword,” no relation to the meaning, will do. The kanji 辺 meant “peripheral; edge of an area; area.”

The on-yomi 辺り /a’tari/ means “surrounding; vicinity; neighborhood.” The on-yomi /he’n/ is in この辺 /konohen/ “the neighborhood; this area,” 四辺形 (“quadrilateral; four-sided figure” /shihe’nkee/), 周辺 (“surroundings; vicinity” /shuuhen/), 辺境 (“frontier; outlying district” /henkyoo/), and /pen/ is in 天辺 (“top” /teppe’n/ often in hiragana てっぺん). Another on-yomi /be/ is in 浜辺 (“shore; beach” /hamabe/).

5The kanji 遅 “late; slow”

History of Kanji 遅The kanji 遅 had oracle bone style and bronze ware style samples as shown on the left. How a sitting person and possibly an animal came to mean 犀 “rhinoceros” is not clear. In kanji, the upper right component 犀 was used phonetically to mean “slow.” The lower left was a bushu shinnyoo. In ten style the upper right consisted of 尾 “tail” and 牛 “ox; cow,” which was reflected in kyujitai. In shinjitai they were replaced by 羊. The kanji 遅 means “slow; late.”

The kun-yomi 遅い (“late; slow” /osoi/) and 遅れる (“to be late; arrive late” /okureru/), 出遅れる (“to make a late start” /deokure’ru/), 乗り遅れる (“to miss a bus or train” /noriokure’ru/), 遅かれ早かれ (“sooner or later” /osokarehaya’kare/), 手遅れ (“too late” /teo’kure/). The on-yomi /chi/ is in 遅刻 (“late; arrive late” /chikoku/), 遅々として (“very slowly” /chi’chitoshite/).

6 The kanji 遊 “to play; have fun; travel around”

History of Kanji 遊History of Kanji 游The kanji 遊, with a bushu shinnyoo, does not appear in Setsumon Kaiji, Instead it was with a sanzui “water” (游). The history of the kanji 游 is shown on the right. In oracle bone style, the left and the top was a flagpole and a streamer of a clan. The bottom right was a child. The left bronze ware style writing showed a person viewed from the side. He was holding the flagpole with both hands firmly. The writing meant “clan” with a clan streamer swimming in the sky. In ten style, “water” was added on the left side to indicate “to swim.” When a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward” was added instead, the kanji 遊 originally meant “to travel around; move around.” From that it meant “to play; to have fun.” It also retained the original meaning of “moving about; traveling around” in the words such as 遊学 (“to travel abroad for leaning” /yuugaku/) and 外遊 (“to travel abroad” (often by a politician) /gaiyuu/).

The kun-yomi 遊ぶ /asonu/ means “to play; have fun.” The on-yomi /yuu/ include words such as 物見遊山 (“going on a pleasure jaunt” /monomiyu’san/) in addition to 遊学 and 外遊.

The clan’s pole and streamer in the kanji 旅旗族: In kanji it is written as 方 on the left side and two strokes at the top of the right component. But as we have just seen in the ancient writings above, they originally signified a single meaning. In the history of kanji I find that it is very rare that a meaningful unit got cut off in the middle like this. I believe this is a very rare case in which a meaningful segment was dropped off entirely. In a traditional kanji dictionary, even from the Setsumon times, it has been listed among 方 as a bushu. The kanji that share the same origin include 旅 (“to travel” /tabi’/), 旗 (“flag” /hata’/), and 族 (“family; clan” /zo’ku/.)

It looks like I need one more posting to finish up with kanji containing a bushu shinnyoo. [January 15, 2016]