The Kanji 即既憤概・会曽増層憎僧贈- Food (2)

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Last week we started exploring kanji that originated food and kitchen, etc. In this second article, two groups of kanji are looked at: The first group is 即既慨概, which contained “food in a raised bowl.” In addition to that three of them contained 旡 “someone with full stomach.” The second group – 会曽層増憎僧贈 – came from “layers in a food steamer” for its meaning and sound.

  1. The kanji 即 “immediate; to accede to the throne; namely”

History of Kanji 即For the kanji 即 in (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, in green, and (d) in seal style, in red, the left side was “food in a raised bowl,” and the right side was “a person about to take a seat to eat.” A person about to do something gave the meaning “at once; immediately.” The sense of immediacy was also used to mean “accession to a throne” (it happens immediately after a predecessor’s death). The kyuji 卽, (e) in blue, comprised 皀 (often explained as “a bowl of food” and “a spoon” (ヒ)), and 卩 “a kneeling person.” In shinji the left side became the bottom of a bushu shokuhen. The kanji 即 means “immediate; instance; to accede to the throne; namely.”

The kun-yomi 即ち /suna’wachi/ means “namely; just; precisely.” The on-yomi /soku/ is in 即時 (“immediate; prompt” /so’kuji/), 即位 (“enthrone” /so’kui/), 即席 (“instant; impromptu” /sokuseki/), 即興 (“improvised amusement” /sokkyoo/) and 即死 (“instant death” /sokushi/).

  1. The kanji 既 “already”

History of Kanji 既For the kanji 既, in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style a person who knelt down in front of food was turning his face away from the food to indicate that he had had enough food. His open mouth is interpreted as belching because of his full stomach. “Having finished eating” gave the meaning “already.” In (c) in bronze ware style and (d) in seal style the two components swapped the positions. In (d) the right side was the reversed shape of 欠 in seal style and became 旡 /ki/ in kanji to mean “full of.” (The kanji 欠 “lack of” and 旡 “full of” had a reverse meaning of each other” in its origin.) The kanji 既 means “already; to be finished.”

The kun-yomi 既に /su’deni/ means “already.” The on-yomi /ki/ is in 既存の (“existing” /kison-no/), 既出 (“aforementioned; previously covered” /kishutsu/), 既婚 (“married” /kikon/), 既製服 (“ready-made clothes; off-the shelf clothing” /kise‘ehuku/), 既成事実 (“an established fact” /kiseeji’jitsu/) and 皆既日食 (“total solar eclipse” /kaiki-ni’sshoku/).

  1. The kanji 慨 “to lament; deplore; grieve over”

FHistory of Kanji 慨or the kanji 慨, the seal style writing comprised “heart,” and 既 “a person looking backward with an open mouth.” A heart full of emotions signified “to lament; grieve over,” and was used phonetically for /gai/. The kanji 慨 means “to lament; deplore; grieve over.”

The on-yomi /gai/  is in 憤慨 (“resentment; indignation” /hungai/) and 感慨 (“strong feelings; deep emotion” /kangai/).

  1. The kanji 概 “roughly; in general”

History of Kanji 概For the kanji 概, in the seal style writing the top 既 was used phonetically for /gai/, and the bottom meant 木 “tree; wood.” Together they originally meant “a wooden strickle – a rod to level off a heaped measure.” Leveling off grains indicated “roughly equal.” The kanji 概 means “roughly; in general.”

The on-yomi /gai/ is in 大概 (“almost; mostly; for the most part; probably; all probability” /taigai/), 概説 (“a rough summary; a rough sketch; brief account” /gaisetsu/), 概観 (“general view; general survey” /gaikan/ and 概要 (“outline; summary; resume” /gaiyoo/).

  1. The kanji 会 “to meet”

History of Kanji 会For the kanji 会 the oracle bone style writing comprised “a crossroad” (彳), “a container with a lid” (合), signifying “to fit; meet,” and “a footprint” at the bottom. Together they meant “to go on foot to meet (someone).” In bronze ware style and seal style it had “a food steamer with a lid with layers of steaming trays” and “a cooking stove” at the bottom. The crossroad disappeared. The kyuji 會 reflected seal style. The shinji 会 is the simplified form with 云 (a shape that is used in place of a complex shape) under 𠆢 “a cover.” The kanji 会 means “to meet; meeting; association.”

The kun-yomi 会う /a’u/ means “ to meet,” and is in 出会う (“to encounter” /dea’u/). The on-yomi /kai/ is in 会合 (“meeting” /kaigoo/), 会議 (“conference; meeting” /ka’igi/), 会計 (“accounts; bill; check” /kaikee/), 会話 (“conversation” /kaiwa/) and in the expression 会心の笑み (“smile of satisfaction” /kaishin-no-e-mi’/). nother on-yomi /e/ is in 会釈 (“a bow” /e’shaku/) and会得する (“to grasp; understand” /etoku-suru/).

  1. The kanji 曽 “formerly; great-grand (father)”

History of Kanji 曽For the kanji 曽, (a) and (b) in bronze ware style was “a steamer” from which steam was rising (八) at the top. A steamer had layers of trays or baskets, and from that it meant “to layer; layered.” The kyuji 曾, (d), reflected (c) in seal style, and became simplified to 曽 in shinji, changing ハ to a truncated ソ, 田 and曰. It was also borrowed to mean “once; on one occasion; formerly” or “three generations ago.” The kanji 曽 means “to lay something on top of another; formerly.”

The kun-yomi /katu/ is in 曽て (“formerly; once” /ka’tsute/). The on-yomi /soo/ is in 曽祖父 (“great-grandfather” /sooso-hu/) and曾孫 (“great-grandchild” /sooson/).

  1. The kanji 層 “layer”

History of Kanji 層For the kanji 層 the seal style comprised 尸 , a bushu shikabane “roof,” and 曾 “layers; to add” and was used phonetically for /soo/. Something in multiple levels meant “stratum.” It is also used for “class of people.” The kyuji 層, 2, reflected 1. The kanji 層 means “layer; stratum.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /soo/ is in 層になる (“to become the layer” /so’o-ni-naru/), 断層 (“fault; dislocation; a gap; difference” /dansoo/) and 階層 (“class; rank; level in society” /kaisoo/).

  1. The kanji 増 “to increase; add”

History of Kanji 増For the kanji 増the seal style writing comprised 土 “dirt; soil,” and 曾 “layer; to add,” which was used phonetically for /soo/. Together adding soil to existing layers meant “to increase.” The kyuji 增, 2, was simplified to 増. The kanji 増 means “to add; increase.”

The kun-yomi 増す /masu/ means “to increase.”  Another kun-yomi /huya’su/ 増やす (transitive verb) and 増える /hue’ru/ (intransitive verb) are “to increase; add.” The on-yomi /zoo/ is 増加 (“increase” /zooka/), 増水 (“the rise of a river; flooding” /zoosui/), 倍増 (“redoubling” /baizoo/) and 増長する (“to grow impudent; become presumptuous; be puffed up (with pride)” /zoochoo-suru/).

  1. The kanji 憎 “to hate”

History of Kanji 憎For the kanji 憎 the seal style writing comprised “heart,” which became , a bushu risshinben, and 曾 “layers; to add,” which was used phonetically for /zoo/. Together “certain emotions that accumulated” gave the meaning “hate.” The kyuji 憎, 2, became shinji 憎. The kanji 憎 means “to hate; detest; abhor; hateful.”

The kun-yomi 憎む /niku’mu/ means “to hate,” and is in 憎しみ (“hatred; animosity; bad blood” /nikushimi/) and 憎い (“detestable; annoying; fantastic; remarkable” /niku’i/). The on-yomi /zoo/ is in 憎悪 (“hatred” /zo’oo/) and 愛憎 (“love and hatred” /aizoo/).

  1. The kanji 僧 “monk”

History of Kanji 僧For the kanji 僧 the seal style writing comprised “a person,” and 曾, which was used phonetically for /soo/. The writing was used as a phonetic rendition of the Buddhism word sampha in Sanskrit. The kanji 僧 means “monk; priest.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /soo/ is in 僧侶 (“monk” /so’oryo/).

  1. The kanji 贈 “to give; present”

History of Kanji 贈For the kanji 贈 the seal style writing comprised 貝 “cowry” signifying “valuable; monetary value,” and 曾 “layers; to add,” which was used phonetically for /soo; zoo/. Giving a present was an act of one conferring or giving a valuable item to another person. The kyuji 贈, 2, was simplified to 贈. The kanji 贈 means “to give; present.”

The kun-yomi 贈る /okuru/ means “to give (a gift).” The on-yomi /zoo/ is in 贈答品 (“gift” /zootoohin/) and 寄贈する (“to contribute; donate” /kazoo-suru/).

The second group会曽層増憎僧贈 is rather straight forward — The common component (曽) was used phonetically for /so; soo; zoo/ as well as to mean “to add; layer.” With , a bushu shikabane 層 means “stratum; level”; with 土, a bushu tsushiben 増 means “to add”; with, a bushu risshinben, 憎 means “hatred”; with イ, a bushu ninben, 僧 means “monk”; and with 貝means a bushu kaihen “to give a present,” and even in kanji会, with 𠆢, a bushu hitoyane 會, in kyuji.

There are many more kanji that originated from things in kitchen and we shall be exploring them in the next few postings.  Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [August 26, 2017]

The Kanji 食飯餓館飽飾飲餌養 – Food (1)

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食と食へんThe new area of topics we are going to explore in the this and next several postings is around a kitchen, cooking, measuring, etc. We start kanji with a bushu shokuhen “eating; food” – 食飯餓館飽飾飲餌養. A bushu shokuhen has one stroke fewer than the kanji 食, as shown on the right. We shall also see that not all the kanji with a bushu shokuhen originated from 食.

  1. The kanji 食 “to eat; meal”

History of Kanji 食For the kanji 食, in (a), (b) and (c) in oracle bone style, in brown, it was “food in a raised bowl with a lid.” (b) had the dotted lines on both sides. I am unable to find the account for this in reference, but I am wondering if they signified that there was so much food that it was spilling over. It meant “food; to eat.” (d), in green, was in bronze ware style. In seal style (e), in red, some scholars analyze it as 皀 with 𠆢 — “a cover” (𠆢), “food” (白) and “a spoon; ladle” (ヒ). The kanji 食 means “to eat; food.”  <The composition of the kanji: 𠆢 and 良>

The kun-yomi 食べる /tabe’ru/ means “to eat,” and is in 食べ物 (“food” /tabe’mono/). Another kun-yomi 食う /ku’u/ has many uses — 食う (/ku’u/ “to eat” – a male speaker’s style; or used for an animal), 電池を食う (“to use up battery” /de’nchi-o ku’u/), 足止めを食う or 食らう (“to be prevented leaving” /ashidome-o-ku’u; kura’u/), 虫が食う (“to be eaten by worms” /mushi-ga-ku’u/), 食い止める (“to stop; hold back” /kuitome’ru/), 食ってかかる (“to go at someone; lash out at someone” /ku’ttekakaru/) and 食い違う (“do not match; go wrong” /kuichigau/). The on-yomi /shoku/ is in 食事 (“meal” /shokuji/), 朝食 (“breakfast” /chooshoku/), 食材 (“food; ingredients” /shokuzai/), 粗食 (“plain food” /soshoku/), 食料品 (“foodstuffs; groceries” /shokuryoohin/) and 給食 (“school lunch” /kyuushoku/).

  1. The kanji 飯 “cooked rice; meal”

History of Kanji 飯For the kanji 飯, in bronze ware style and seal style it comprised “food in a raised bowl with a lid,” and 反, which was used phonetically for /han/. Together they originally meant “cooked grains such as rice and millet.” The kanji 飯 means “cooked rice; meal.” <The composition of the kanji 飯: a bushu shokuhen and 反>

The kun-yomi 飯 /meshi’/ means (“mea” /meshi’/ by a male speaker), and is in 昼飯 (“lunch” /hirumeshi/ by a male speaker), 握り飯 (“rice ball” /nigirimeshi/) and 朝飯前 (“piece of cake; snap” /asamashima’e/). The on-yomi /han/ is in (お)赤飯 (“steamed sticky rice with red azuki beans” for a celebratory meal /oseki’han/ or /sekihan/), 炊飯器 (“(electric) rice cooker” /suiha’nki/), 五目ご飯 (“rice cooked with a few other ingredients” /gomoku-go’han/) and in the expression 日常茶飯事 (“daily occurrence” /nichijoosaha’nji/). /-Pan/ is in 残飯 (“leftovers from a meal” /zanpa’n/).

  1. The kanji 餓 “to starve”

History of Kanji 餓For the kanji 餓, the seal style writing comprised “food in a raised bowl with a lid,” and 我, which was used phonetically for /ga/ to mean “to starve.” The kanji 餓 means “to starve.” A few postings ago, we looked at another kanji that meant “to starve” – the kanji 飢. The kanji 飢 focuses on lack of food (such as in famine).   <The composition of the kanji 餓: a bushu shokuhen and 我>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ga/ is in 飢餓 (“starvation” /ki’ga/), 餓死 (“death due to starvation” /ga’shi/) and 餓鬼 (“imp” /ga’ki/; “young mischievous kid; brat” spoken by a male speaker” /gaki’/).

4. The kanji 館 “building; large house”

History of Kanji 館For the kanji 館, the seal style writing had “food in a raised bowl with a lid” (食), and 官 “a place where military officers stay,” which was used phonetically for /kan/. Together they originally meant “a place where many people gather and eat.” The kanji 館 means “a large building; mansion.”  <The composition of the kanji 館: a bushu shokuhen and 官>

The kun-yomi 館 /yataka/ means “a mansion; a large house.” The on-yomi /kan/ is in 旅館(“Japanese-style inn” /ryokan/), 会館 (“hall; clubhouse; building” /kaikan/), 図書館 (“library” /tosho’kan/), 大使館 (“embassy” /taishi’kan/) and 水族館 (“aquarium” /suizoku’kan/).

  1. The kanji 飽 “to grow tired; weary; be fed up; full”

History of Kanji 飽For the kanji 飽, in Old style the left side of (a), in purple, had “a covered bowl of food.” The right side had “a hand” over “a baby.” Together they meant “feeding a baby to full stomach.” The top of (b) is not clear, but it could be two doors to an altar, and (b) means “to offer food to satisfy a god.” In seal style in (c) the right side was replaced by 包 “to wrap up completely,” from a baby in mother’s womb, and was used phonetically for /hoo/ to mean “full.” After eating much food one’s stomach was full. With too much of anything one gets weary of. The kanji 飽 means “to become tired of; be saturated; weary; full.”  <The composition of the kanji 飽: a bushu shokuhen and 包>

The kun-yomi 飽きる /aki’ru/ means “to grow weary of; become tired of.” It is in 飽きが来る (“to grow tired of” /aki’ga-kuru/), 飽き足らない (“unsatisfying” /akitaranai/), 聞き飽きた (“I got tired of hearing it” /kikia’kita/) and 飽くまで (“to the bitter end; to the last; stubbornly” /aku’made/). The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 飽和 (“saturation” /hoowa/).

  1. The kanji 飾 “to decorate”

History of Kanji 飾For the kanji 飾, the left side of the seal style writing had 食 “food in a raised bowl with a lid” and 人 “person” on the right top, and 巾 “cloth” at the bottom. Together they meant “a person in front of a bowl of food wiping the bowl with a piece of cloth.” It meant “to make it clean or pretty.” The kanji 飾 meant “to decorate; embellish.”  <The composition of the kanji 飾: a bushu shokuhen, a short ノ, 一 and 巾>

The kun-yomi 飾る /kazaru/ means “to decorate,” and is in 髪飾り(“hair accessory” /kamika’zari/), 飾り付け (“decoration” /kazaritsuke/) and 着飾る (“to dress up” /kikazaru/). The on-yomi /shoku/ is in 修飾語 (“modifier” in grammar /shuushokugo/), 服飾デザイナー (“dress designer” /hukushoku-deza’inaa/) and 粉飾決算 (“fraudulent account; window dressing settlement” /hunshoku-ke’ssan/).

In the next three kanji – 飲餌養, the bushu shokuhen originated from something other than “food in a raised bowl with a lid.”

  1. The kanji 飲 “to drink; swallow”

History of Kanji 飲For the kanji 飲, in oracle bone style (a) had “a person trying to drink wine from a large wine cask.” If we look at (a) closely, the tongue was a forked shape, as was in the ancient writings of the kanji 舌 “tongue,” indicating eating. It meant “to drink (wine).” (b) in oracle bone style was a large wine cask (酉) with a stopper at the top. The left side of (c) and (d) in bronze ware style and (e) in seal style had a wine cask with a stopper. The right side was a person trying to drink or opening his mouth wide. In the kyuji 飮, (f) in blue, the cask was replaced by a bushu shokuhen “to eat; food.” The reason could be that a bushu 酉 was primarily used for fermented liquid and the kanji 飲 is more inclusive of liquids and food that one drinks or swallows without chewing. The kanji 飲 meant “to drink; swallow.”  <The composition of the kanji 飲: a bushu shokuhen and 欠 >

The kun-yomi 飲む /no’mu/ means “to drink; swallow,” and is in 飲み込む (“to swallow; understand” /nomiko’mu/), 飲み込みがいい (“quick to comprehend” /nomikomi-ga-ii/), 飲食店 (“restaurant” /inshoku’ten/), 飲料水 (“drinking water” /inryo’osui/) and 誤飲 (“drinking or swallowing by mistake” /goin/).

  1. The kanji 餌 “bait; feed”

History of Kanji 餌For the kanji 餌, the two seal style writings, (a) and (b), had totally different shapes. (a) was “a vessel to keep grains” (鬲) with 耳 on top, which was used phonetically for /ji/ to mean “flour dumpling.” Together they originally meant “steamed dumpling.” (b) had “food on a raised bowl with a lid” on the left side, and 耳 “ear,” which was used phonetically for /ji/. The kanji 餌 means “animal feed; bait; lure.”  <The composition of the kanji 餌: a bushu shokuhen and 耳>

The kun-yomi 餌 (“bait; lure; animal feed” /esa’; e’/), and is in 餌付ける (“to feed (to domesticate)” /ezuke’ru/) and 餌食になる (“to become a victim” /e’jiki-ni-naru/). The on-yomi /ji/ is not on the Joyo kanji list.

  1. The kanji 養 “to support; nourish; foster”

History of Kanji 養For the kanji 養, (a) in oracle bone style and (b) and (c) in bronze ware style had a sheep on the left, which was used phonetically for /yoo/ to mean “to feed.” The right side was “a stick held by a hand,” signifying “action.” Together they signified sheep farming. The right side would have become 攴 in kanji, but in seal style, (d), the kanji 食 “to eat; food” replaced it. The kanji 養 means “to support (by providing food); nourish; foster.”  <The composition of the kanji 養: 羊 with a short last stroke, 八 and 良>   (P. S. — Actually (a) was “a cow; ox,” judging from the shape of the horns. August 20, 2017)

Other kanji such as 飼 “to keep animal,” 飢 “to starve” and 餅 “rice cake” do not have ancient writing and are phonetic-semantic kanji, in which a bushu shokuhen signified “food.”

In this posting we have seen in all the kanji that a bushu shokuhen, which is one stroke fewer than the kanji 食, pertains to food, eating or drinking.  Some kanji even did not contain 食 in earlier writings, but for the meaning of “food; eating” a bushu shokuhen took over as a semantic feature.  We shall continue exploring the topic around food preparation and eating in the next several postings. Thank you very much for your reading. – Noriko [August 19, 2017]

The Kanji 病痛疾疲疫痴嫉痩療痢痘症- “table” (4) 疒

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In this fourth posting on kanji that originated from different sorts of tables, we are going to explore kanji with “a sickbed”– 病痛疾疲疫痴嫉痩療痢痘症. What is common among those twelve kanji is 疒, a bushu yamaidare (/yamai’dare/). /Ya’mai/ (病) is an old word for “sickness” and /-dare/ is a voicing assimilation of /tare/ that means “to hang down; droop.” A bushu whose name ends with /-dare/ has a shape that begins with a top component that hangs down to the bottom left.

  1. The kanji 疾 “sickness; very fast”

History of Kanji 疾For the kanji 疾 (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, was “a sick person with perspiration due to high fever or blood (indicated by the three dots) lying in bed” that was placed vertically. On the other hand, (b) in bronze ware style, in green, was “a person” and “an arrow” at the bottom right, together signifying “a wounded person shot with an arrow.” An arrow was also used phonetically for /shitsu/. (c) in seal style, in red, was (a) and (b) combined – “a sick bed” and “an arrow.” In (d) in Old style, in purple, an arrow was placed under 厂. The kanji 疾comprises a bushu yamaidare (疒) and “an arrow” (矢). Having an arrow as its component, it also meant “very fast.” The kanji 疾 means “illness; very fast.”  <the composition of the kanji 疾: 疒 and 矢>

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /shitsu/ is in 疾患 (“disease; malady; ailment” /shikkan/), 疾病 (“disease; malady” /shippee/), 疾走する (“to sprint; run at full speed” /shissoo-suru/) and 疾風 (“gale; strong wind” /shippuu/).

  1. The kanji 病 “illness; sick”

History of Kanji 病For the kanji 病, the seal style writing comprised “a bed” that was vertically placed, and 一, signifying “a person lying down” on the right side, and 丙, which was used phonetically for /hee; byoo/ to mean “to add; increase.” Together they originally signified someone’s illness had deteriorated or “ill; sick.” In kanji “a person lying in a sickbed” became 疒, a bushu yamaidare. The kanji means “illness; sick; something unhealthy.”  <the composition of the kanji 病: 疒 and 丙>

The kun-yomi 病 /ya’mai/ means “sickness; illness,” as in 病に倒れる (“to fall ill” /ya’mai-ni taore’ru/. The on-yomi /byoo/ is in 病気 (“illness; disease” /byooki/), 病床 (“one’s sickbed” /byooshoo/), 病欠 (“absence due to illness” /byooketsu/), 病死 (“death from an illness; natural death” /byooshi/), 病的な (“morbid; unsound; unhealthy; abnormal” /byooteki-na/) and 金欠病 (“having little money” colloquial among friends /kinketsubyoo/). Another on-yomi /pee/ is in 疾病 (“disease” /shippee/).

  1. The kanji 痛 “pain; severe; acute”

History of Kanji 痛For the kanji 痛, the seal style writing had the elements of a bushu yamaidare. On the right side below a line, 甬 “a wooden pail,” was used phonetically for /tsuu/ to mean “to pass through.” In sickness what passed through one’s body was “pain; ache.” A pain running through a body could be “piercing and severe.” The kanji 痛 means “pain; ache; severe; piercing.”  <the composition of the kanji 痛: 疒, マ and 用>

The kun-yomi 痛い /ita’i/ means “to ache; be in pain,” 痛々しい (“pitiful; pathetic” /itaitashi’i/) and 手痛い (“serious; costly” /teita’i/). The on-yomi /tsuu/ is in 苦痛な (“painful” /kutsuu-na/), 沈痛な (“grave; sad” /chintsuu-na/), 痛感する (“to feel acutely; take something to heart” /tsuukan-suru/) and 痛切に (“keenly; poignantly; acutely” /tsuusetsu-ni/).

  1. The kanji 疲 “fatigue; to be tired”

History of Kanji 疲For the kanji 疲, the seal style writing had the components for 疒, a bushu yamaidare, and 皮, which was used phonetically for /hi/ to mean “to be tired.” The kanji 疲 means “fatigue; to become tired; worn out.”  <the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 皮>

The kun-yomi 疲れる /tsukare’ru/ means “to become fatigued; become tired,” and is in the expression お疲れ様でした (“Thank you for your hard work” /otsukaresama-de’shita/). /-Zukare, -づかれ/ is in 気疲れ (“mental fatigue; nervous exhaustion” /kizukare/. The on-yomi /hi/ is in 疲労 (“fatigue” /hiroo/), 金属疲労 (“metal fatigue” /kinzokuhi’roo/) and 疲弊する (“to grow impoverished; become exhausted” /hihee-suru/).

  1. The kanji 疫 “epidemic”

History of Kanji 疫For the kanji 疫, the seal style writing comprised the elements of a bushu yamaidare. The right side under a line (“a person”) was “a hand holding a weapon” (殳, a bushu hokozukuri), which was /eki/ phonetically, and is believed to be an abbreviated form of the kanji 役. The kanji 役, when pronounced as /eki/, meant “conscripted for a battle or frontier work,” and it had the connotation that it was something everyone did reluctantly. So, 疒, a bushu yamaidare and 殳 together meant “illness that everyone unwillingly got” – that is, “an epidemic.” The kanji 疫 means “epidemic.”  <the composition of the kanji 疫: 疒 and 殳>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /eki/ is in 疫病 (“an epidemic” /ekibyoo/) and 検疫 (“quarantine” /ken-eki/).

  1. The kanji 痴 “foolish; idiocy”

History of Kanji 痴The seal style of the kanji 痴 comprised the components of a bushu yamaidare, and 疑 “to doubt; unsure,” which was used phonetically for /chi/. The kanji 疑 had the origin that someone stood still not knowing which way to go or what to do. Together someone who was in such a sick condition that he could not judge correctly meant “foolish; idiocy” The kyuji reflected the seal style, but in the shinji 痴, 疑 was replaced by 知 “to know,” which was phonetically /chi/. It is interesting to see that components (疑 and 知) that had almost opposite meanings were used to carry the same meaning.  <the composition of the kanji 痴: 疒 and 知>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /chi/ is in 痴呆症 (“dementia” /chihooshoo/), 白痴 (“idiocy; an idiot” /hakuchi/) and 愚痴 (“silly complaint; grumble” /guchi/), as in 愚痴をこぼす (“to whine; grumble” /guchi-o-kobo’u/).

  1. The kanji 嫉 “jealous”

History of Kanji 嫉The seal style writing of the kanji 嫉 had 女 “a woman” and 疾, which was used phonetically for /shitsu/, as we have just seen in 1 above. According to Shirakawa, Setsumon gave the writing with イ, a ninben “a person,” rather than 女 “woman” as on the left side of 疾 to be the Correct writing, but Setsumon did not seem to have given any seal style sample. (The seal style on the left is from Shirakawa.) Together they meant “jealous.” The kanji 嫉 means “to be jealous; envy.”  <the composition of the kanji 嫉: 女 and 嫉>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shitsu/ is in 嫉妬する (“to be jealous” /shitto-suru/) and 嫉妬心 (“jealous feeling; envy” /shitto’shin/).

 8. The kanji 痩 “to become haggard; become emaciated; slim”

History of Kanji 痩For the kanji 痩 the seal style writing had “a table” on the left, and the right side had a line on top, and 叟 “an elder person” was used phonetically for /soo/. “A sick old person” gave the meaning “to become haggard; emaciated.”  <the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 皮>

The kun-yomi 痩せる /yaseru/ means “to become thin; lose weight.” The on-yomi /soo/ is in 瘦身 (“slim figure; lean figure” /sooshin/).

  1. The kanji 療 “medical treatment”

History of Kanji 療In seal style (a) and (b) had the components for a bushu yamaidare. The right side 尞 of (a) underneath 一 was used phonetically for /ryoo/. 2 had 樂 “comfort,” which is the kyuji for the kanji 楽. Together they meant “relieving pains of a sick person.” The kanji 療 means “medical treatment.”  <the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 尞>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ryoo/ is in 治療 (“treatment; care; remedy” /chiryoo/), 療法 (“therapy; treatment” /ryoohoo/) and 療養中 (“under medical treatment” /ryooyoochuu/).

  1. The kanji 痢 “diarrhea”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 痢 comprises “a person in sick bed” and 利, which was used phonetically for /ri/ and to mean “quick.” The kanji 痢 mean “diarrhea.”  <the composition of the kanji 痢: 疒 and 利>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ri/ is in 下痢 (“diarrhea” /geri/) and 赤痢 (“dysentery” /se’kiri/).

  1. The kanji 痘 “smallpox”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 痘 comprised a bushu yamaidare, and 豆, which was used phonetically for /too/ and meant “bean.” 豆 originally meant “a raised tall bowl” that was /too/ phonetically, as seen in kanji such as 頭 “head.” It came to mean “bean.” A disease that gave pustules is smallpox. The kanji 痘 means “smallpox.  <the composition of the kanji 痘: 疒 and 豆>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /too/ is in 種痘 (“smallpox vaccine” /shutoo/).

  1. The kanji 症 “symptom of illness”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 症. The kanji 症 comprises 疒 “sick bed,” and 正, which was used phonetically for /shoo/ to mean “sign.” Together they meant “how an illness manifests.” The kanji 症 means “symptom of illness.” <the composition of the kanji 症: 疒 and 正>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shoo/ is in 症状 (“symptom” /shoojo’o/), 既往症 (“past illnesses” /kiooshoo/), 炎症を起こす (“to cause inflammation” /enshoo-o oko’su/) and 重症 (“severely ill” /juushoo/).

In the last four postings we have explored various shapes that originated from a table with legs — 几・其・丙・爿・ 疒.  I am surprised at the extent of the use of a table in kanji, some even given a 90-degree turn. In the next posting we shall move onto another topic. I am thinking about the area of a kitchen and cooking. Thank you very much for your reading. – Noriko [August 6, 2017]