In this fourth posting on kanji that originated from different sorts of tables, we are going to explore kanji with “a sickbed”– 病痛疾疲疫痴嫉痩療痢痘症. What is common among those twelve kanji is 疒, a bushu yamaidare (/yamai’dare/). /Ya’mai/ (病) is an old word for “sickness” and /-dare/ is a voicing assimilation of /tare/ that means “to hang down; droop.” A bushu whose name ends with /-dare/ has a shape that begins with a top component that hangs down to the bottom left.
The kanji 疾 “sickness; very fast”
For the kanji 疾 (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, was “a sick person with perspiration due to high fever or blood (indicated by the three dots) lying in bed” that was placed vertically. On the other hand, (b) in bronze ware style, in green, was “a person” and “an arrow” at the bottom right, together signifying “a wounded person shot with an arrow.” An arrow was also used phonetically for /shitsu/. (c) in seal style, in red, was (a) and (b) combined – “a sick bed” and “an arrow.” In (d) in Old style, in purple, an arrow was placed under 厂. The kanji 疾comprises a bushu yamaidare (疒) and “an arrow” (矢). Having an arrow as its component, it also meant “very fast.” The kanji 疾 means “illness; very fast.” ＜the composition of the kanji 疾: 疒 and 矢＞
There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /shitsu/ is in 疾患 (“disease; malady; ailment” /shikkan/), 疾病 (“disease; malady” /shippee/), 疾走する (“to sprint; run at full speed” /shissoo-suru/) and 疾風 (“gale; strong wind” /shippuu/).
The kanji 病 “illness; sick”
For the kanji 病, the seal style writing comprised “a bed” that was vertically placed, and 一, signifying “a person lying down” on the right side, and 丙, which was used phonetically for /hee; byoo/ to mean “to add; increase.” Together they originally signified someone’s illness had deteriorated or “ill; sick.” In kanji “a person lying in a sickbed” became 疒, a bushu yamaidare. The kanji means “illness; sick; something unhealthy.” ＜the composition of the kanji 病: 疒 and 丙＞
The kun-yomi 病 /ya’mai/ means “sickness; illness,” as in 病に倒れる (“to fall ill” /ya’mai-ni taore’ru/. The on-yomi /byoo/ is in 病気 (“illness; disease” /byooki/), 病床 (“one’s sickbed” /byooshoo/), 病欠 (“absence due to illness” /byooketsu/), 病死 (“death from an illness; natural death” /byooshi/), 病的な (“morbid; unsound; unhealthy; abnormal” /byooteki-na/) and 金欠病 (“having little money” colloquial among friends /kinketsubyoo/). Another on-yomi /pee/ is in 疾病 (“disease” /shippee/).
The kanji 痛 “pain; severe; acute”
For the kanji 痛, the seal style writing had the elements of a bushu yamaidare. On the right side below a line, 甬 “a wooden pail,” was used phonetically for /tsuu/ to mean “to pass through.” In sickness what passed through one’s body was “pain; ache.” A pain running through a body could be “piercing and severe.” The kanji 痛 means “pain; ache; severe; piercing.” ＜the composition of the kanji 痛: 疒, マ and 用＞
The kun-yomi 痛い /ita’i/ means “to ache; be in pain,” 痛々しい (“pitiful; pathetic” /itaitashi’i/) and 手痛い (“serious; costly” /teita’i/). The on-yomi /tsuu/ is in 苦痛な (“painful” /kutsuu-na/), 沈痛な (“grave; sad” /chintsuu-na/), 痛感する (“to feel acutely; take something to heart” /tsuukan-suru/) and 痛切に (“keenly; poignantly; acutely” /tsuusetsu-ni/).
The kanji 疲 “fatigue; to be tired”
For the kanji 疲, the seal style writing had the components for 疒, a bushu yamaidare, and 皮, which was used phonetically for /hi/ to mean “to be tired.” The kanji 疲 means “fatigue; to become tired; worn out.” ＜the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 皮＞
The kun-yomi 疲れる /tsukare’ru/ means “to become fatigued; become tired,” and is in the expression お疲れ様でした (“Thank you for your hard work” /otsukaresama-de’shita/). /-Zukare, -づかれ/ is in 気疲れ (“mental fatigue; nervous exhaustion” /kizukare/. The on-yomi /hi/ is in 疲労 (“fatigue” /hiroo/), 金属疲労 (“metal fatigue” /kinzokuhi’roo/) and 疲弊する (“to grow impoverished; become exhausted” /hihee-suru/).
The kanji 疫 “epidemic”
For the kanji 疫, the seal style writing comprised the elements of a bushu yamaidare. The right side under a line (“a person”) was “a hand holding a weapon” (殳, a bushu hokozukuri), which was /eki/ phonetically, and is believed to be an abbreviated form of the kanji 役. The kanji 役, when pronounced as /eki/, meant “conscripted for a battle or frontier work,” and it had the connotation that it was something everyone did reluctantly. So, 疒, a bushu yamaidare and 殳 together meant “illness that everyone unwillingly got” – that is, “an epidemic.” The kanji 疫 means “epidemic.” ＜the composition of the kanji 疫: 疒 and 殳＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /eki/ is in 疫病 (“an epidemic” /ekibyoo/) and 検疫 (“quarantine” /ken-eki/).
The kanji 痴 “foolish; idiocy”
The seal style of the kanji 痴 comprised the components of a bushu yamaidare, and 疑 “to doubt; unsure,” which was used phonetically for /chi/. The kanji 疑 had the origin that someone stood still not knowing which way to go or what to do. Together someone who was in such a sick condition that he could not judge correctly meant “foolish; idiocy” The kyuji reflected the seal style, but in the shinji 痴, 疑 was replaced by 知 “to know,” which was phonetically /chi/. It is interesting to see that components (疑 and 知) that had almost opposite meanings were used to carry the same meaning. ＜the composition of the kanji 痴: 疒 and 知＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /chi/ is in 痴呆症 (“dementia” /chihooshoo/), 白痴 (“idiocy; an idiot” /hakuchi/) and 愚痴 (“silly complaint; grumble” /guchi/), as in 愚痴をこぼす (“to whine; grumble” /guchi-o-kobo’u/).
The kanji 嫉 “jealous”
The seal style writing of the kanji 嫉 had 女 “a woman” and 疾, which was used phonetically for /shitsu/, as we have just seen in 1 above. According to Shirakawa, Setsumon gave the writing with イ, a ninben “a person,” rather than 女 “woman” as on the left side of 疾 to be the Correct writing, but Setsumon did not seem to have given any seal style sample. (The seal style on the left is from Shirakawa.) Together they meant “jealous.” The kanji 嫉 means “to be jealous; envy.” ＜the composition of the kanji 嫉: 女 and 嫉＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shitsu/ is in 嫉妬する (“to be jealous” /shitto-suru/) and 嫉妬心 (“jealous feeling; envy” /shitto’shin/).
8. The kanji 痩 “to become haggard; become emaciated; slim”
For the kanji 痩 the seal style writing had “a table” on the left, and the right side had a line on top, and 叟 “an elder person” was used phonetically for /soo/. “A sick old person” gave the meaning “to become haggard; emaciated.” ＜the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 皮＞
The kun-yomi 痩せる /yaseru/ means “to become thin; lose weight.” The on-yomi /soo/ is in 瘦身 (“slim figure; lean figure” /sooshin/).
The kanji 療 “medical treatment”
In seal style (a) and (b) had the components for a bushu yamaidare. The right side 尞 of (a) underneath 一 was used phonetically for /ryoo/. 2 had 樂 “comfort,” which is the kyuji for the kanji 楽. Together they meant “relieving pains of a sick person.” The kanji 療 means “medical treatment.” ＜the composition of the kanji 疲: 疒 and 尞＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ryoo/ is in 治療 (“treatment; care; remedy” /chiryoo/), 療法 (“therapy; treatment” /ryoohoo/) and 療養中 (“under medical treatment” /ryooyoochuu/).
- The kanji 痢 “diarrhea”
There is no ancient writing. The kanji 痢 comprises “a person in sick bed” and 利, which was used phonetically for /ri/ and to mean “quick.” The kanji 痢 mean “diarrhea.” ＜the composition of the kanji 痢: 疒 and 利＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ri/ is in 下痢 (“diarrhea” /geri/) and 赤痢 (“dysentery” /se’kiri/).
The kanji 痘 “smallpox”
There is no ancient writing. The kanji 痘 comprised a bushu yamaidare, and 豆, which was used phonetically for /too/ and meant “bean.” 豆 originally meant “a raised tall bowl” that was /too/ phonetically, as seen in kanji such as 頭 “head.” It came to mean “bean.” A disease that gave pustules is smallpox. The kanji 痘 means “smallpox. ＜the composition of the kanji 痘: 疒 and 豆＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /too/ is in 種痘 (“smallpox vaccine” /shutoo/).
The kanji 症 “symptom of illness”
There is no ancient writing for the kanji 症. The kanji 症 comprises 疒 “sick bed,” and 正, which was used phonetically for /shoo/ to mean “sign.” Together they meant “how an illness manifests.” The kanji 症 means “symptom of illness.” ＜the composition of the kanji 症: 疒 and 正＞
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shoo/ is in 症状 (“symptom” /shoojo’o/), 既往症 (“past illnesses” /kiooshoo/), 炎症を起こす (“to cause inflammation” /enshoo-o oko’su/) and 重症 (“severely ill” /juushoo/).
In the last four postings we have explored various shapes that originated from a table with legs — 几・其・丙・爿・ 疒. I am surprised at the extent of the use of a table in kanji, some even given a 90-degree turn. In the next posting we shall move onto another topic. I am thinking about the area of a kitchen and cooking. Thank you very much for your reading. – Noriko [August 6, 2017]