In this fourth post on kanji that originated from a container and a lid, we are going to look at two common shapes, 甬 “a hollow cylindrical shape” that signified “to go through; fall through” in the kanji 通勇湧踊, and a bushu hitoyane (𠆢 or 亼) “cover” in the kanji 全詮栓傘.
The shape 甬 had its own history shown on the right. There are different views on this shape. One is a person stamping his feet on a pole to push through a board. In this post we take the view that it was a hollow cylindrical shape that was formed by assembling pieces of wood. Being hollow gave the meaning “to fall through.” It is phonetically /yoo; too/.
The kanji 通 “to pass through; go and come back regularly; commute”
For the kanji 通 (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, had “a crossroad” on the left and 甬 “a hollow cylindrical shape,” signifying “to fall through,” and “a footprint” in (a) added. Together they meant “to move on past a crossroad” or “to pass through.” In (c) in bronze ware style, in green, in addition to the two components it had “a round shape” at the top indicating “a rounded cylindrical shape,” such as a pail,” which changed to a マ shape in kanji. In (d) in seal style the footprint moved to the left side, and together with a crossroad they formed 辵, which coalesced into 辶, a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward.” Not having an obstacle in the passage also meant “to go and come back regularly.” It is also used in communication in speaking and telephone, etc. The kanji 通 means “to pass through; go and come back regularly; understand.” [Composition of the kanji 通: 甬 and 辶] (Please note that in writing 辶 has a wiggly line, as shown in the kanji in the table.)
The kun-yomi 通う /kayou/ means “to commute.” Another kun-yomi 通る /to’oru/ means “to pass by,” and is in 通り (“road” /toori/), 見通しだ (to be expected” /mitooshi-da/) and その通り(“True; exactly” /sono-to’ori/). The on-yomi /tsuu/ is in 日本語が通じる (“be able to communicate in Japanese” /Nihongo-ga-tsuujiru/), 交通 (“traffic” /kootsuu/), 通信 (“communication” /tsuushin/), 通過する (“to pass through” /tsuuka-suru/), 通用する (“to be used; be accepted” /tsuuyoo-suru/) and 精通している (“familiar with; knowledgeable with” /seetsuu-shiteiru/).
２. The kanji 勇 “courage; brave”
For the kanji 勇, the top of (a) in bronze ware style had “a hollow cylindrical shape,” signifying “to go through,” and was used phonetically for /yuu/. The bottom was “a plough,” signifying “to exert one’s strength.” Together they meant “one’s strength spurting.” (b) in Old style had “a heart” rather than “a plough” at the bottom. In seal style (c) had the two components placed side by side whereas (d) had “a halberd” instead of “a plough.” Together they meant to muster up one’s strength to do something. Bravery involves spurts of strength. The kanji 勇 means “courage; brave.” [Composition of the kanji 勇: マ, 田 and 力]
The kun-yomi /isamashi’i/ means “brave,” and is in 勇んで (“in high spirits; with a light heart” /isa’nde/) and 勇み足 (“over-eagerness; rash” /isami’ashi/), as in 勇み足をする (to make a careless mistake by rushing”). The on-yomi /yu/ is in 勇気 (“courage” /yu’uki/), 勇敢な (“brave” /yuukan-na/), 勇退 (“voluntary retirement” /yuutai/) and 蛮勇 (“recklessness” /ban-yuu/).
The kanji 湧 “to spring out”
The seal style writing of the kanji 湧 comprised “water” and 甬 which was used phonetically for /yuu/ to mean “through.” Together they meant “water springing out from a well.” The kanji 湧く means “to bubble up; spring out.” [Composition of the kanji 湧: 氵and 勇]
The kun-yomi 湧く /waku/ means “to spring out.” The on-yomi /yuu/ is in 湧出する (“water springs out” /yu’ushutsu-suru/).
The kanji 踊 “to dance”
The seal style writing of the kanji 踊 comprised 足 “leg; foot” and 甬 used phonetically for /yoo/ to mean “to bubble up.” Together they meant “legs jumping up and down.” The kanji 踊 means “to dance.” [Composition of the kanji 踊: 足へん and 甬]
The kun-yomi /odoru/ means ‘to dance,” and is in 盆踊り (“Bon festival group dancing” /bon-o’dori/). The on-yomi /yoo/ is in 舞踊 (“dancing” /buyoo/).
The next shape called a bushu hitoyane means “a cover.” The name comes from the shape of the kanji 人 and had not relation to its meaning. /Yane/ means “roof.”
The kanji 全 “complete; perfect; to fulfill”
For the kanji 全 (a) in Large seal style, in light blue, had “a roof or cover” (𠆢 or 亼) that signified “to gather things under one cover”– a bushu hitoyane. The bottom was a set of flawless perfect jewels or jems (王). (b) in Old style had decoration that was in symmetry. The kanji 全 meant “complete; perfect; to fulfill.” [Composition of the kanji 全: 𠆢 and 王]
The kun-yomi 全く~ない (“completely not” /mattaku ~ na’i/). The verb 全うする /mattoo-suru/ means “to carry out; fulfil completely.” Another kun-yomi 全て /su’bete/ means “all.” The on-omi /zen/ is in 完全に (“completely; perfectly” /kanzen-ni/), 全部 (“all; entirety” /ze’nbu/) and 全然~ない (“not at all” /zenzen ~na’i/).
The kanji 詮 “to discuss thoroughly; in the end”
The seal style writing comprised 言 “word; language” and 全 “complete; thorough” used phonetically for /sen/. Together they meant that “details were worked out or elucidated.” It also means “to think thoroughly” and “in the end.” [Composition of the kanji 詮: 言 and 全]
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /sen/ is in 詮索する (“to pry; inquire” /sensaku-suru/), 所詮は (“after all” /shosen-wa/) and 詮議する(“to give due consideration” /se’ngi-o suru/).
The kanji 栓 “stopper; plug”
There is no ancient writing. The kanji 栓 comprises 木 “wood” and 全, which was used phonetically for /sen/ to signify “stopper; plug.” A wooden piece was used as a wedge or stopper. The kanji 栓 means “stopper; plug; wedge.” [Composition of the kanji 栓: 木 and 全]
There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 栓 /sen/ means “stopper; plug,“ as in ワインに栓をする (“to cork a bottle” /wain-ni sen-o-suru/), 水道の元栓 (“the main valve of water supply” /suidoo-no motosen/) and 耳栓 (“ear plug” /mimisen/).
The kanji 傘 “umbrella”
The kanji 傘 does not have ancient writing. The kanji 傘 has a canopy (𠆢), folding frames (four 人) and a central rod (十). It meant an umbrella. It also meant a protecting force for many different things. The kanji 傘 means “umbrella; parasol; protecting force.” [Composition of the kanji 傘: 𠆢, two 人, 十 and two 人]
The kun-yomi /kasa/ means “umbrella,” and is in 傘立て (“umbrella stand” /kasata’te/). /-Gasa/ is in 雨傘 (“rain umbrella” /amaga’sa/) and 日傘 (“parasol” /higa’sa/).
We shall continue exploring kanji that originated a container in the next posts -Noriko [February 11, 2018 –Japan time]