The Kanji 声南琴喜樹膨鼓-musical instrument

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As the last article of the group of kanji that originated from “a thing; stuff,” we are going to look at kanji that originated from musical instruments – 声南琴喜樹膨鼓.

  1. The kanji 声 “voice; fame; reputation; sound”

History of Kanji 声For the kanji 声 (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, was “a musical instrument with a hanging rope” and “an ear” below that. (b) and (c) in seal style, in red, had “a hand holding a stick to bang the hanging sound” board added. Together they meant “one listening to the sound of a hanging musical instrument that was banged by hand.” The kyuji 聲 in (d), in blue, contained all the components — “a banging instrument,” “a hand hitting with a tool” and “an ear to listen to.” But in the shinji 声only the top left was kept. Even though the origin was from an musical instrument and a person’s ear, it meant human “voice.” The kanji 声means “voice; fame; reputation; sound.”

The kun-yomi 声 /ko’e/ means “voice.” 鶴の一声 (“authoritative pronouncement; voice of authority” /tsu’ru-no hito’koe/). /-Goe/ is in 大声 (“loud voice” /oogo’e/). Another kun-yomi /kowa-/ is in 声音 (“tone of voice” /kowa’ne/). The on-yomi /see/ is in 無声音 (“voiceless sound” /muse’eon/), 音声 (“voice; sound” /o’nsee/), 銃声 (“sound of gunfire” /juusee/, 声援を送る (“to cheer” /seen-o okuru/) and 名声 (“fame” /meesee/). Another on-yomi /shoo/ is a go-on in 大音声 (”an ear-splitting voice” /daio’njoo/).

  1. The kanji 南 “south”

History of Kanji 南For the kanji 南 in oracle bone, bronze ware style, in green, and seal style  it was a musical instrument called /nan/, which was hung with ropes at the top. The shape was similar to a hanging bell. The writing was borrowed to mean “south.” Some scholars suggested that the sound nanwas similar to dan 暖 “warm,” and it may have something to do with this choice. The kanji 南means “south.”

The kun-yomi 南 /minami/ means “south” and is in 南側 (“south side” /minamigawa/). The on-yomi /nan/ is in 南北 (“the south and north” /na’nboku/), 南極 (“Antarctica: South Pole” /nankyoku/) and 中南米 (“Latin America; Central and South America” /chuuna’nbee/).

  1. The kanji 琴 “harp”

History of Kanji 琴The seal style writing of the kanji 琴 was “a harp,” with a bowed body and bridges for strings. The kanji 琴 means “harp.”

The kun-yomi /koto/ means “hard.” The on-yomi /kin/ is in 木琴(“marimba; xylopohone” /mokkin/) and 心の琴線に触れる(“to touch one’s heartstrings” /kokoro-no-kinsen-ni hureru/).

  1. The kanji 喜 “to rejoice; happy; be delighted”

History of Kanji 喜For the kanji 喜 the oracle bone style and bronze ware style writings had “a hand drum with a hanging device” at the top and 口 “a box of prayers and benedictions” at the bottom. They meant “pleasing a god with good drumming. The Old style writing, in purple, had a person who was singing or about to eat feast with his mouth wide open added but dropped in seal style. The kanji 喜 means “to rejoice; happy; be delighted.”

The kun-yomi 喜ぶ /yoroko’bu/ means “to rejoice; be delighted” and is in 大喜びする  (“to be overjoyed; be thrilled” /ooyo’rokobi-suru/). The on-yomi /ki/ is in 歓喜(“delight” /ka’nki/), 喜劇 (“comedy” /ki’gki/), 悲喜こもごも(“bittersweet; having mingled feelings of joy and sorrow” /hi’ki-komo’gomo/), 喜怒哀楽 (“feelings” /ki’do airaku/) and 一喜一憂 (“glad and sad by turns” /i’kki ichiyuu/).

  1. The kanji 樹 “tree; to plant a tree; establish”

History of Kanji 樹For the kanji 樹 the bronze ware style writing, (a), comprised 壴 “a drum” and 寸 “hand” used phonetically for /chu; ju/ to mean “a tree; arbor.” (c) in seal style reflected (a), but in (b) 木 “tree” was added. “A hand holding a tree straight up” gave the meaning “to plant a tree” and “to establish” in a general sense. The kanji 樹 means “tree; to plant a tree; establish.”

The kun-yomi /ki/ means “tree.” The on-yomi /ju/ is in 樹立する (“to establish” /juristsu-suru/), 果樹園 (“orchard” /kaju’en/) and 広葉樹 (“broad leaf tree” /kooyo’oju/).

  1. The kanji 膨 “to swell out; expand; get big”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 膨. The kanji comprised 月 “a part of one’s body” on the left side and 壴 “a hanging drum” and 彡 “something pretty” together used phonetically for booto mean “sound of a hand drum reverberating” or something spreading like the sound. A part of the body that tended to expand was a stomach. The meaning of a part of body dropped it meant “to expand.” The kanji 膨means “to swell out; expand; get big.”

The kun-yomi 膨らむ /hukuramu/ means “to swell out; expand,” and is in 着膨れる(“to be thickly clad” /kibukure’ru/). The on-yomi /boo/ is in 膨張する(to expand; swell” /boochoo-suru/) and 膨大な (“enormous; colossal” /boodai-na/).

  1. The kanji 鼓 “a hand drum; to hit a drum; drum up”

History of Kanji 鼓For the kanji 鼓(a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style and (e) in seal style comprised “a drum with a hanging rope at the top” and “a hand hitting the drum with a drumstick.” Together they meant “a hand drum.” A hand hitting a drum gave the meaning “rhythemic; to stir up.” The kanji 鼓 means “a hand drum; to hit a drum; drum up.”

The kun-yomi /tuzumi/ (つづみ) means “hand drum” and is in 小鼓 (“hand-held drum” /kotuzumi/). The on-yomi /ko/ is in 太鼓 (“drum” /taiko/), 鼓舞する(“to encourage; inspire” /ko’bu-suru/), 鼓動 (“to beat; pulsate” /kodoo-suru/) and 鼓笛隊 (“fife and drum band” /kotekitai/).

The next group of kanji we explore is a tied bag or things in a bundle. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 31, 2018]

The Kanji 典冊柵・偏編遍・論輪倫 – “bound writing tablets”

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In this post we are going to look at nine kanji in three subgroups –典冊柵 (with 冊)・偏編遍 (with 扁)・論輪倫 (with 侖). They share the origin of writing tablets bound together that made a book and could be rolled up for storage.

  1. The kanji 典 “code; law; model”

History of Kanji 典For the kanji 典 in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, the top was writing tablets of the same length linked together with leather straps. (a) had two hands holding it very carefully while (b) had a hand turning the book to read. What the two lines at the bottom in (a) signified is not clear, but they might have indicated a table. (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green, had a low table (几). The important bound writing tablets were a model or code from precedents that one looked up, and the writing meant “code; law; model.” In (e) in Old style, in purple, “bamboo” pertaining to “writing” was added at the top, but it was dropped in (f) in seal style, in red. In kanji the top was coalesced to the top of a low table. The kanji 典 means “code, law; model.”

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /ten/ is in 辞典 (“dictionary” /jiten/), 典雅な (“refined; elegant” /te’nga-na/), 出典 (“source of reference” /shutten/), 古典 (“classics” /koten/) and

典型的な (“stereotyped; typical” /tenkeeteki-na/). /-Den/ is in 香典 (“offering in Buddhism funeral” /kooden/; 典 substitutes for a non-Joyo kanji).

  1. The kanji 冊 “bound book; a counter for books”

History of Kanji 冊The history of the kanji 冊 has two different interpretations. One is that it was writing tablets linked together as a book. (d) in Old style, in purple, had “bamboo” at the top but lost it in (e) in seal style. This development is very similar to the kanji 典, without a table to place on. It meant “a counter of bound books.” Another view takes notice on the different length of the vertical lines in the ancient writings. Shirakawa says that a writing tablet had a set length and that wooden stakes of different length linked in a circle signified “a corral to keep live stocks to be used for sacrificial offering.” It was /saku/ phonetically. Because of the similar appearance between stakes pounded to the ground to keep live animals and writing tablets linked together, the writing mistakenly came to be used to mean “a bound book.” The kyuji 册, (f) in blue, was simplified to 冊. The kanji 冊 is used as a counter for books.

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /satsu/ is in 三冊 (“three books” /sa’nsatsu/), 冊数 (“number of volume” /satsusu’u/), 別冊 (“separate volume; extra issue” /bessatsu/) and 小冊子 (“booklet” /shoosa’sshi/). Another on-yomi /-zaku/ is in 短冊 (“strip of paper” /tanzaku/).

  1. The kanji 柵 “fence; wooden stockade”

History of Kanji 柵The seal style writing of the kanji 柵 comprised 木 “tree; wood” and 冊 “linked wooden stakes” used phonetically for /saku/. Because the writing 冊 changed to mean “a bound book,” the new writing was created for the original meaning of “wooden uneven length stakes to keep animals.” The kanji 柵 means “fence; wooden stockade.”  <Composition of the kanji 柵: 木 and 冊>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 柵 /saku/ means “fence” and is in 鉄柵 (“iron fence” /tessaku/)

扁: In the next three kanji 偏編遍, what is common is 扁. One view of the origin is “a screen; mesh” in a part of a single swing door (扁); another view is that it was a bound book.

  1. The kanji 偏 “to become lopsided”

History of Kanji 偏The seal style writing of the kanji 偏  comprised イ “an act one does” and 扁 “a screen door” used phonetically for /hen/ to mean “one side (of the two),” together signifying “to lean to one side.” The kanji 偏 means “to get lopsided; one side; bias.” <Composition of the kanji 偏: イ, 戸 and 冊 without the horizontal line going through >

The kun-yomi 偏る /katayo’ru/ means “to become lopsided; become biased.” The on-yomi /hen/ is in 偏と旁 (left side component and right side component in kanji), 偏食 (“deviated food habit; unbalanced diet” /henshoku/) and 偏向 (“inclination; leaning; bias” /henkoo/).

  1. The kanji 編 “to compile; edit; knit; braid”

History of Kanji 編The seal style writing of the kanji 編 comprised 糸 “a skein of thread” and 扁 for /hen/ phonetically. 扁 comprised 戸 “door; family” and 冊 “bamboo or wooden tablets tied together for record keeping,” signifying “family registry record; to compile documents; edit.” Together they also meant “to knit (yarn); braid.” The kanji 編 means “to compile; edit; knit.” <Composition of the kanji 編: 糸 and 扁>

The kun-yomi /a’mu/ means “to knit” and is in 編み物 (“knitting” /ami’mono/), 三つ編み (“braid” /mitsuami/), 編み出す (“to invent; forge; contrive” /amida’su/). The on-yomi /hen/ is in 編集 (“editing” /henshuu/), 再編成 (“reorganization; reshuffle” /saihe’nsee/) and 長編小説 (“long novel” /choohen sho’osetsu/).

  1. The kanji 遍 “to go around; universal; time”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 遍. The kanji 遍 comprises 辶, a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward” and 扁 used phonetically for /hen/, together signifying “to go around,” and further “everywhere; widely; extensively; far and wide.” “Making a round in a circuit” also gave the meaning “once; time.” The kanji 遍 means “to go around; far and wide; time.” <Composition of the kanji 遍: 扁 and 辶>

The kun-yomi 遍く/amane’ku/ means “everyplace; all over; extensively.” The on-yomi /hen/ is 普遍的 (worldwide; universal; general” /huhenteki/). /-Pen/ is in 一遍 (“once; one time” /ippen/) and 一遍に (“in one sitting; all at one” /ippe’n-ni/). /-Ben/ is in 何遍も (“several times; repeatedly” /na’nben-mo/).

History of Kanji 侖The third shape 侖 has the history shown on the right. (a), (b) and (c) had writing tablets that were linked with straps as a book rolled up for storage under a roof. From “bound writing tablets rolled up” 侖 signified “things in good order in a circular shape.”

  1. The kanji 論 “logic; argument”

History of Kanji 論For the kanji 論 the bronze ware style writing was things in good order bound together in a circular shape (侖). The seal style writing comprised “word; language; to say” was added. Words that were arranged in good order meant “logic; argument.” The kanji 論 means “logic; argument.”  <Composition of the kanji 論: 言 and 侖>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ron/ is in 論じる (“to discuss” /ronjiru/), 議論 (“argument” /gi’ron/), 論争 (“dispute; controversy” /ronsoo/), 論文 (“article; dissertation; thesis” /ronbun/), 異論を唱える (“to object to” /iron-o tonae’ru/) and 世論 (“public opinion” /yo’ron/).

  1. The kanji 輪 “wheel; circle; loop”

History of Kanji 輪The seal style writing of the kanji 輪 comprised 車 “a wheel” and 侖 used phonetically for /rin/ to mean “many arrows arranged in a circular shape.” Together they meant “wheel; circle; loop.” <Composition of the kanji 輪: 車 and 侖>

The kun-yomi 輪 /wa/ means “a ring,” and is in 輪ゴム (“elastic band” /wagomu/) and 内輪話 (“inside information; private talk” /uchiwaba’nashi/). The on-yomi /rin/ is in 車輪 (“wheel” /sharin/), 三輪車 (“tricycle” /sanri’nsha/), 両輪 (“two wheels; both wheels” /ryoorin/) and 輪郭 (“contour; outline; profile” /rinkaku/).

  1. The kanji 倫 “ethics; principle”

History of Kanji 倫The seal style writing of the kanji 倫 had a “person; an act that one does” and 侖 used phoentically for /rin/ to mean “things ordered in good order.” Together “what a person should observe” means “ethics; principle.” The kanji 倫 means “ethics; principle.” <Composition of the kanji 倫: イ and 侖>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /rin/ is in 倫理 (“morality; ethics” /ri’nri/) and 人倫 (“human relations; morality” /jinrin/).

Even though the three shapes 冊, 扁 and 侖 have different meanings, they share the underlying meaning “writing tablets or stakes linked together in an orderly manner and it can be rolled up.” I believe that we still need to have another post on the topics of objects next week. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 24, 2018]

The Kanji 主注柱住筆律書粛津- “lamp” and “brush”

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As one of the last categories of the origins of kanji we have been looking at things  around the living area. In this post we are going to look at the kanji that originated from “a burning lamp” (主) – 主注柱住 and “a writing brush” (聿) – 筆律書粛津.

  1. The kanji 主 “master; main; primary”

History of Kanji 主For the kanji 主 the oracle bone style writing, in brown, was “a flame” on top of 木 “wood,” signifying “a torch” (used outside). The bronze ware writing, in green, was “a flame” alone. In seal style, in red, it became “a burning oil wick on a long-stem oil lamp holder” inside a house. A fire was important and symbolized “the master of a house.” The kanji 主 means “master; main; primary.” [the composition of the kanji 主: 丶 and 王]

There are three different kun-yomi: 主 /a’ruji/ means “master; proprietor”; a second kun-yomi 主な /o’mo-na/ means “major; primary”; and a third kun-yomi /nu’shi/ is in 家主 (“landlord; owner of a house” /ya’nushi/), 飼い主 (“owner of a pet” /ka’inushi/) and 雇用主 (“employer” /koyo’onushu/). The on-yomi /shu/ is in 主人公 (“main character” /shuji’nkoo/), 主義 (“principle; ideology” /shu’gi/), 主観的な (“subjective” /shukanteki-na/), 主体的な (“independent; active” /shutaiteki-na/) and 主客転倒 (“mistaking the means for the end; putting the cart before the horse” /shu’kakutentoo). Another kun-yomi /zu/ comes from a go-on reading and is in 丸坊主 (“shaven head’ bald” /marubo’ozu/).

  1. The kanji 注 “to pour; pay (attention)”

History of Kanji 注For the kanji 注 the seal style writing comprised “water; liquid” and 主 used phonetically for /chuu/ to mean “staying in one place.” Together they meant “a manner in which one poured lamp oil very carefully.” The kanji 注 meant “to pour; pay (attention).” [the composition of the kanji 注: 氵and 主]

The kun-yomi 注ぐ /sosogu/ means “to pour.” The on-yomi /chuu/ is in 注意する “careful; to watch out; to give warning” /chu’ui/), 注目 (“attention; recognition” /chuumoku/), 注文 (“order” /chuumon/) and 外注(“outsoursing” /gaichuu/).

  1. The kanji 柱 “pillar; column; support”

History of Kanji 柱The seal style of the kanji 柱 comprised 木 “tree; wood” and 主 used phonetically for /chuu/ to mean “something that does not move; main.” Together “wood that stayed in one place supporting the rest of a house” was “column.” The kanji 柱 means “pillar; column; support.” [the composition of the kanji 柱: 木 and 主]

The kun-yomi 柱 /hashira’/ means “column.” /-Bashira/ is in 大黒柱 (“the central pillar of a house; breadwinner” /daikokuba’shira/). The on-yomi /chuu/ is in 電柱 (“utility pole” /denchuu/).

  1. The kanji 住 “to live; reside”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 住. The kanji 住 comprised イ, a bushu ninben “person; an act that one does,” and 主 used phonetically for /juu/ to mean “to stay in one place” like a lamp would. A place in which one stayed for a long time meant “to live; reside.” The kanji 住 means “to live; reside.” [the composition of the kanji 住: イand 主]

The kun-yomi 住む /su-mu/ means “to live,” and is in 住み込み (“a live-in” /sumikomi/). Another word to mean “to reside” is 住まう /suma’u/ and is in 住まい (“house; residence” /su’mai/). The on-yomi /juu/ is in 住所 (“address” /ju’usho/), 住民 (“resident” /juumin/), 住居 (“housing” /ju’ukyo/), 住宅地 (“residential area” /juuta’kuchi/) and 定住 (“long-term residency” /teejuu/).

The next five kanji contain 聿 “a writing brush” -筆律書粛津

  1. The kanji 筆 “a writing brush”

History of Kanji 筆For the kanji 筆 (a), (b) and (c) had “a writing brush held by a hand.” It meant “a writing brush.” In (d) “bamboo” (竹) was added at the top to mean the brush itself, differentiating from act of writing. A writing brush usually had a bamboo handle. The kanji 筆 means “a writing brush.” [the composition of the kanji 筆: 竹かんむり and 聿]

The kun-yomi /hude/ means “writing brush” and is in 筆使い (“one’s handling of a brush; touch; technique” /udezu’kai/), 絵筆 (“paintbrush; an artist’s brush” /e’hude/), 筆まめな (“facile with the pen” /hudemame-na/), 筆が立つ (“good writer” /hude-ga-ta’tsu/). The on-yomi /hitsu/ means 筆記用具 (“writing materials” /hikkiyo‘ogu/) and 万年筆 (“fountain pen” /manne’nhitsu/). /-Pitsu/ is in 鉛筆 (“pencil” /enpitsu/), 達筆な (“skillful penmanship” /tappitsu-na/) and 執筆者 (‘the author; the writer” /shippitsu’sha)

  1. The kanji 律 “law; rules that one follows”

History of Kanji 律For the kanji 律 the oracle bone writing comprised “a crossroad” signifying “a way to go or to conduct oneself” and “a hand holding a writing brush straight up.” Together they meant “to conduct oneself in an upright manner as prescribed in a rule.” The kanji 律 means “law; rules that one follows.” [the composition of the kanji 律: 彳 and聿]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ritsu/ is in法律 (“law” /hooritsu/), 律する (“to measure; govern” /rissuru/), 戒律 (“religious percept” /kairitsu/) 一律に (“uniformly; across the board” /ichiritsu-ni/), 不文律 (“unwritten rule” /hubu’nritsu/) and 規律正しい (“disciplined; well-ordered” /kiritsutada’shii/). Another on-yomi /richi/ is a go-on reading and is in 律儀な (“upright; conscientious” /ri’chigi-na/).

  1. The kanji 書 “to write; writing; documents”

History of Kanji 書For the kanji 書in the bronze ware style and seal style writings the top was “a hand holding a writing brush upright” (聿). The bottom (者) was used phonetically for /sha/ to mean “to copy.” The kanji 書 means “to write; writing; scripture.” [the composition of the kanji 書: 聿 except the middle vertical line does not go through and 日]

The kun-yomi 書く /ka-ku/ means “to write” and is in 書留 (“registered mail” /kakitome/).  -/Ga/ is in 下書き (“draft” /shitagaki/), 横書き (“horizontal writing” /yokogaki/), 上書き (“overwriting” /uwagaki/) and 肩書き (“title of one’s position” /katagaki/). The on-yomi /sho/ is in 書類 (“documents” /shorui/) and 文書で (“in writing; on paper” /bu’nsho-de/), 聖書 (“the Bible” /se’esho/), 書記 (“secretary” /shoki/) and 白書 (“White paper –comprehensive report by the government” /ha’kusho/).

  1. The kanji 粛 “solemn; quiet; prudent”

History of Kanji 粛For the kanji 粛 (a) in oracle bone style had “a writing brush” and “a pair of compasses for drawing a circle.” Together they meant “drawing a picture on bronze ware.” In (b) and (c) in bronze ware style the brush was not present. (d) in Old style, in purple, comprised “a writing brush,” “a heart” and something else (possibly 勺 for phonetic use of /shaku/). Adding a picture to a bronze ware was serious work. From that the kanji 粛 meant “solemn; gravely harsh.” The kyuji, in blue, (f), reflected (e) in seal style. In kanji the bottom was replaced by 米, but had no relevance to the meaning “rice.” The kanji 粛 means “solemn; quiet; prudent.” [the composition of the kanji 粛: hard to describe]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shuku/ is in 静粛に (“silently; in an orderly manner”  /seeshuku-ni/), 自粛 (“voluntary restraint” /jishuku/) and 粛清 (“purge; cleanup” /shukusee/).

  1. The kanji 津 “shoal; landing”

History of Kanji 津For the kanji 津 the bronze ware style and Old style comprised “water” “a bird” and “a boat.” A bird alighting on a boat in water signified “a boat landing area.” In seal style the right side became a writing brush dripping ink or liquid droplets on the lower left side signifying an area with little water, and it was used phonetically for /shin/. The kanji 津 means “shoal; landing.” [the composition of the kanji 津: 氵and聿]

The kun-yomi /tsu/ is in 津波 (“tidal wave; tsunami” /tsunami/). The on-yomi /shin/ is in 興味津々 (“of absorbing interest; having a keen interest” /kyo’omi shinshin/).

In the next post we are going to look at kanji including those that originated from musical instruments.  Thank you very much for your reading.  -Noriko [March 17, 2018]

The Kanji 凡帆汎同洞胴銅 – Co­ntainer (6)

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History of Kanji - A vessel; tube-shapeThis is the second post on kanji that originated from a container. The word “container” in our exploration means an object in a broad sense that holds something, including ones for the purpose of transporting. The ancient writing shapes shown on the right were interpreted in four different meanings in this blog, the two of which (a) and (b) were discussed in the last post, and we are going to explore (c) and (d) in this post:

(a) “a boat” to transport on the water in the kanji 舟船舷舶 and as (b) “a shallow bowl; shallow vessel; tray” to transport by hand in the kanji 般搬盤服. In the next post we explore examples used as (c) “a sail” to transport things on the water in the kanji 凡帆汎 and as (d) “a tube-like shape; cylindrical” in the kanji 同洞胴銅.

(c) as “a sail” to transport things on the water 凡

  1. The kanji 凡 “all; common; ordinary; spreading”

History of Kanji 凡In the interpretation of 凡 (c) above, the two vertical lines (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green were “masts,” and the short horizontal lines were the outline of “a sail.” A sail caught wind. A sail is large, and covering a large area meant “all; nearly all; approximation.” In (e) in seal style, in red, the short line in the middle signified that inside was not hollow or empty. “All” means nothing special, thus “ordinary.” The kanji 凡 means “all; common; ordinary; spreading.”  [Composition of the kanji 凡: 几and ヽ]

The kun-yomi 凡そ (“approximately” /oyoso/) and 大凡 (“approximately; more or less” /ooyoso/). The on-yomi /bon/ is in 平凡 (“ordinary; common” /heebon/), 凡人 (“ordinary person” /bonjin/). Another on-yomi /han/ is in 凡例 (“legend: /hanree/).

  1. The kanji 帆 “sail”

There is no ancient writing. For the original meaning of “sail of a boat,” a new kanji 帆 was created by adding a piece of cloth 巾 on the left. The kanji 帆 means “sail.” [Composition of the kanji 帆: 巾 and 凡]

The kun-yomi /ho/ means “sail” and is in 帆立貝 (“scallop” from the shape /hotate’gai/). The on-yomi /pan/ is in 出帆する (“to sail from” /shuppan-suru/).

  1. The kanji 汎 “all; covering all; far and wide; pan-”

History of Kanji 汎The seal style writing had “water” and 凡, which was used phonetically for /han/ to mean “sail; large piece of cloth; to spread.” Together they meant “to float on the water.” Water spreading would cause a flood in a wide area. The kanji 汎 means “all; covering all; far and wide; pan-.” [Composition of the kanji 汎: 氵 and 凡]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is 汎用する (“to use frequently” /han-yoo-suru/), 汎用性のある (“versatile; widely useable” /han-yoosee-no-a’ru/) and (汎アメリカ主義 (“Pan-Americanism” /ha’n amerika-shu’gi/).

(d) 同 “a tube-like shape; cylindrical”

  1. The kanji 同 “same; identical”

History of Kanji 同The origin is not clear. One view is that the top of 1 and 2 in oracle bone style and 3 and 4 in bronze ware style was same as 凡, and in some instances as 舟. The bottom was 口 “mouth; to speak.” A tube-like shape signified that the opening from the front through the back was “the same.” The sides of the top shape were lengthened in (e) in seal style, which reflected in the kanji 同. The kanji 同 means “same; identical.” [Composition of the kanji 同: 冂, 一 and 口]

The kun-yomi 同じ /ona-ji/ or /onna-ji/ means “the same.” The on-yomi /doo/ is in 同一の “same; identical” /dooitsu-no/], 共同 (“cooporation; collaboration” /kyoodoo/), 同感する (“to agree with” /dookan-suru/), 同情する (“to sympathize” /doojoo-suru/) and 異同 (“discrepancy; distinction” /idoo/).

  1. The kanji 筒 “tube-like shape; cylindrical”

History of Kanji 筒The seal style writing had 竹 “bamboo” and 同, which was used phonetically for /doo; too/ to mean “tube-like shape,” a shape having straight parallel sides. Together they meant tube-like shape such as a bamboo. The kanji 筒 means “tube-like shape; cylindrical.” [Composition of the kanji  筒: 竹かんむり and 同]

The kun-yomi 筒 /tsutsu/ means “cylindrical object; tube,” and is in 筒抜け (“leaking out” /tsutsunuke/) and 茶筒 (“tea canister” /chazutu/). The on-yomi /too/ is in 封筒 (“envelop” /huutoo/) and 水筒 (“canteen; water bottle” /suitoo/).

  1. The kanji 洞 “cave; to penetrate”

History of Kanji 洞The seal style writing comprised “water” and 同, which was used phonetically to mean “a shape that was hollow.” Together they mean an area where water gushed through and made a shape that went through, such as cave. The kanji 洞 means “cave; to penetrate.” [Composition of the kanji 洞: 氵 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /doo/ is in 洞窟 (“cave” /dookutsu/) and 空洞化 (“to become hollow; hollow out” /kuudooka-suru/).

  1. The kanji 胴 “torso; trunk”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 胴 comprised 月, a bushu nikuzuki “a part of the body,” and 同, which was used phonetically for /doo/ to mean a tube-like shape. A part of a body that had a tube-like shape was “torso; trunk.” The kanji 胴 means “torso; trunk.” [Composition of the kanji  胴: 月 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi in the Joyo kanji. The on-yomi 胴 /do’o/ means “torso; trunk; waist,” and is in 胴体 (“trunk of the body; torso” /do’otai/).

  1. The kanji 銅 “copper”

History of Kanji 銅The bronze ware style and seal style writings comprised 金 “metal” and 同, which was used phonetically for /do’o/ to mean “red.” Together “red metal” (赤金) meant “copper.” The kanji 銅 means “copper.” [Composition of the kanji 銅: 金 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /do’o/ means “copper” and is in 青銅器 (“bronze artifacts” /seedo’oki/), 銅像 (“bronze statue” /doozoo/), 銅山 (“copper mine” /do’ozan/) and 赤銅色 (“brown; reddish brown” /shakudooiro/).

In the next post we move to other objects around a house. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 10, 2018]

The Kanji 舟船舷舶般搬盤服 – Container (5)

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History of Kanji - A vessel; tube-shapeIn this and next posts we explore kanji whose shapes appear totally unrelated and yet if we look at their ancient writings they did share the same shape, or at least closely related. The shapes shown on the right side were taken from the various kanji. They meant “a vessel; a boat; bowl; cylindrical shape.” I find it very interesting to know that the English word “vessel” also means (1) a ship or a large boat, (2) a hollow container especially one used to hold liquid, such as bowl or cask and (3) by extension, a duct or canal holding or conveying blood or other fluid.

In this post we are going to look at kanji that came from these shapes as (a) “a boat” to transport on the water in the kanji 舟船舷舶 and as (b) “a shallow bowl; shallow vessel; tray” to transport by hand in the kanji 般搬盤服. In the next post we explore examples used as (c) “a sail” to transport things on the water in the kanji 凡帆汎 and as (d) “a tube-like shape; cylindrical” in the kanji 同洞胴銅. Let us begin.

(a) as “a boat” to transport on the water

  1. The kanji 舟 “boat”

History of Kanji 舟For the kanji 舟 in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green, it was the shape of “a boat.” A simple boat such as a canoe was made by hollowing out a log. A boat could also be made with panels of wooden board. (e) in seal style, in red, became the kanji 舟. The kanji 舟 means “boat.”

The kun-yomi /hu’ne/ means “boat.” /-Bune/ is in 小舟 (“small boat” /kobune/), 丸木舟 (“dugout canoe” /marukibu’ne/) and 渡し舟 (“ferry” /watashibu’ne/). The on-yomi /shuu/ is rarely used other than in a name.

  1. The kanji 船 “ship; vessel”

History of Kanji 船For the kanji 船the bronze ware style and seal style writings had “a boat” on the left side. The right side 㕣 was used phonetically for /en/ to mean “along.” A vessel that travelled along the flow of water meant “ship.” The kanji 船 means “ship.”  [Composition of the kanji 船: 舟 and 㕣]

The kun-yomi /hu’ne/ means “ship; vessel.” /Huna-/ is in 船旅 (“voyage; a sea trip” /hunatabi/), 船酔い (“seasickness” /hunayoi/) and 船乗り (“sailor” /huna’nori/). The on-yomi /sen/ is in 乗船する (“to go aboard; embark” /joosen-suru/), 貨物船 (“cargo boat; freight” /kamotsusen/), 客船 (“passenger ship” /kyakusen/), 宇宙船 (“spacecraft” /uchuusen/), 連絡船 (“ferry boat” /renrakusen/) and 船頭 (“boatman” /sendo’o/).

  1. The kanji 舷 “side of a ship; the gunwale”

History of Kanji 舷The Qin-Han era seal sample, in blue, comprised 舟 “boat” and 玄 “thin things like threads” used phonetically for /gen/. Together they meant “the sides of a boat.” The kanji 舷 means “side of a boat; the gunwale; the railing of a boad,” a very specialized kanji in my view.  [Composition of the kanji 舷: 舟 and 玄]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /gen/ is in 右舷 (“starboard” /ugen/) and 左舷 (“port side” /sagen/).

  1. The kanji 舶 “a large ship”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 舶. The kanji 舶 comprises 舟 “boat” and 白 used phoneticallly for /haku/ to mean “large” (some views that it is from 伯).  Together they meant “a large ship that sailed in ocean.” The kanji 舶 means “a large ship.” [Composition of the kanji 舶: 舟 and 白]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /haku/ is in 船舶 (“ship; marine vessel” /se’npaku/) and 舶来品 (“imported goods; foreign article” /hakuraihin/).

(b) as “a shallow vessel; a tray” to transport by hand

  1. The kanji 般 “general”

History of Kanji 般The left side of (a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) in bronze ware style and (d) in Old style, in purple, and (e) in seal style was “a tray.” The right side was “a hand holding a weapon or tool,” which eventually becomes 殳, a bushu hokozukuri/rumata. Together they originally meant “a hand carrying somethings in a shallow bowl,” but the shape was borrowed to mean “general.” A new kanji was created for the original meaning of “to carry” by adding another hand, the kanji 搬, our next kanji. The kanji 般 means “general.” [Composition of the kanji 般: 舟 and 殳]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is in 諸般の (“all sorts of; various”/sho’han-no/) and 般若経 (“the Wisdom Sutras; Prajnaparamita Sutra” /hannyakyoo/).  /-Pan/ is in 一般 (“general” /ippan/), 全般的な (“comprehensive; all-embracing” /zenpanteki-na/), 一般化する (“to become universal; generalize” /ippanka-suru/), 一般人 (“people at large; private citizen” /ippa’njin/) and 一般教養課程 (“general culture course” /ippankyo’oyoo/).

  1. The kanji 搬 “to carry; transport”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 搬 comprises 扌, a bushu tehen, “an act one does using a hand,” and 般 used phonetically for /han/. This kanji was created to assume one of the original meaning that the kanji 般had. The kanji 搬 means “to carry; transport.” [Composition of the kanji 搬: 扌, 舟 and 殳]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is in 搬入する (“to carry something in” /hannyuu-suru/). /-Pan/ is in 運搬する (“to transport; carry” /unpan-suru/).

  1. The kanji 盤 “a tray; a raised flat bowl”

History of Kanji 盤For the kanji 盤 (a) in oracle bone style had “a hand holding a tool” (殳) and “a tray” (舟) (together 般, originally meant “to carry”) and “a shallow bowl” (皿). In bronze ware style, (b), (c) and (d) had the same three components. Together they meant “a shallow flat bowl one carries something” or “a tray.” (e) in Large seal style, (f) in Old style and (g) in seal style all had 般 at the top. The kanji 盤 means “a tray; a raised flat bowl.” [Composition of the kanji 盤: 舟, 殳and 皿]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ban/ is in 大盤振る舞い (“lavish feast” /ooban-bu’rumai/), 円盤 (“disk” /enban/), 基盤 (“basis; foundation” /kiban/),文字盤 (“clock dial” /mojiban/) and 地盤 (“ground; subsoil” /jiban/). A Japanese abacus also uses this kanji as in 算盤 /soroban/.

The next two kanji 朕 and 服, what we have been looking at as the shape 舟 in kanji appear as 月.

  1. The kanji 朕­ “I (imperial We)”

History of Kanji 朕For the kanji 朕 (a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style all comprised “a shallow bowl or a tray” (月 or 舟) for transporting things and “two hands holding up an (important) object.” Together they meant “to carry something in a tray and present reverentially with both hands.” It was used by an emperor as a first-person pronoun “imperial We.” In seal style, (e), what was presented became the shape 火 (with no relevance to “fire”). In kanji 朕 the elements on the right side coalesced and became 关. The kanji 朕 means “I (imperial We).” [Composition of the kanji 朕: 月and 关]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 朕 /chin/  means “I (imperial We).”

  1. The kanji 服 “to follow; obey; clothes; brief rest”

History of Kanji 服For the kanji 服 (a) in oracle bone style and (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, the left side had “a flat bowl or vessel.” In the middle and the right side had “a person being pushed by a hand and kneeling down.” Together the knelt-down posture signified “to subject to; yield to.” In Old style, (d), “a hand” disappeared, but in (e) in seal style “a hand” (又) returned. The kanji 服 meant “to follow; obey; obedient.” Clothes are molded to a person’s body, yielding to the body, so it is also used for “clothes.” It also means “to take medicine” or “to have a short rest.” [Composition of the kanji 服: no segment available]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 服 /huku/ means “clothes,” and is in 服装 (“clothes” /hukusoo/), 制服 (“uniform” /seehuku/), 服従する (“to obey” /hukujuu-suru/), 征服 (“conquest” /seehuku/), 服役 (“penal servitude” /hukueki/) and 不服 (“dissatisfaction; disapproval” /huhuku/).  /-Puku/ is in 一服する (“to have a brief rest; have a smoke” /ippuku-suru/).

J0877受HistoryThe kanji 受 and 授–It has been a long time since we looked at the kanji 受and 授. The kanji 受 also had “a vessel that contained a valuable thing” between “a hand form above” and “a hand from below.” Together they signified “a hand giving out something valuable and another hand receiving it,” and originally meant both “to receive” and “to bestow.” Later giving and receiving became differentiated and the kanji 受was used for an action for a receiver. The kanji 受 meant “to receive.”

There is one more post that we need to continue on the kanji that originated from a container next week.  Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 3, 2018]