The Kanji 牛物利件牧牲半判伴畔   

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I have written last week that I was going to take a break from writing for a while. I am posting a new one so soon. This post was prompted by a comment from a reader last week about the origin of the kanji 物, which involves the discussion of the bushu ushihen “ox; cow.”  First we look at kanji with a bushu ushihen– 牛物件牧牲 with revisiting 利. Then we look at the kanji with 半-半判伴畔.

  1. The kanji  牛 “bull; ox”

For the kanji 牛 in oracle bone style, in brown, bronze ware style, in green, and seal style, in red, the top was an ox head with its two horns growing upwards, and the bottom was its body. It meant “an ox; a cow.” In kanji a short-slanted stroke was added on the top left for an emphasis on the horns. The kanji 牛 means “cow; ox; cow.” [Composition of the kanji 牛: a short ノ, 二 and丨]

The kun-yomi 牛 /ushi/ means “cow; bull; ox; cattle.” The on-yomi /gyuu/ is in 乳牛 “dairy cow; dairy cattle” /nyuugyuu/, 牛乳 “milk” /gyuunyuu/, 牛肉 “beef” /gyuuniku/, 牛車 “ox-drawn carriage used by nobility in the Heian period” /gi’ssha/ and 水牛 “buffalo” /suigyuu/.

  1. The kanji 物 “stuff; thing; various; to select”

For the kanji 物 there was an old view that the right side was streamers of different colors. Oxen had different coloration and signified “various or assorted.” From various things it meant “thing; stuff.” Another view (seen in Shirakawa) seems to explain the ancient writings here better. (a) was “a plough or hoe spattering the soil,” which was phonetically /butsu/. This eventually became the shape 勿 in kanji. In (b) and (c) “an ox,” a large animal, signifying all animals, was added. (d) had “a plough with spattering soil” only. (e) comprised “an ox” and “a plough.” Cows or oxen that pulled a plough for tilling the fields had different coloration, thus it meant “various or assorted.” Choosing from various things also signified “to select; make one’s choice.” The kanji 物 means “stuff; thing; various; to select.” [Composition of the kanji 物: 牛 and 勿]

The kun-yomi 物 /mono’/ means “thing; matter; article; goods,” and is in 安物 “cheap article; inferior article” /yasumono/, 買い物 “shopping” /kaimono/, 生き物 “living creature” /iki’mono/ and 物々しい “showy; stately” /monomonoshi’i/. The on-yomi /butsu/ is in 物品 “goods; an article” /buppin/, 物理学 “physical science” /butsuri’gaku/, 物色する “look for; select” /busshoku-suru/ and 見物する “to go sight-seeing” /kenbutsu-suru/. Another on-yomi /motsu/ is in 禁物 “tabooed thing; forbidden thing” /kinmotsu/.

[The interpretation of the shape in (a), (b) and (c) as “a plough or hoe spattering the soil” is also relevant to the kanji 利. So, let us look at the kanji 利 here. It is a revision of my earlier writing a year ago.]

The kanji 利 “sharp;  useful; advantageous”

For the kanji 利 (a) comprised “a knife” or “a plough or hoe” and “a rice plant with crop.” (b), (c) and (d) comprised of “a rice plant” and “a plough or hoe spattering the soil.” A sharp pointed plough or hoe could dig up the soil effectively and be useful. It meant “useful; advantageous; sharp.” In (e) the plough or hoe became replaced by “a knife,” preserving the sense of a tool that was sharp. (On the other hand in 物 it became 勿.) In kanji it was replaced by 刂 a bushu rittoo “knife.” The kanji comprises 禾, a bushu nogihen, and刂 a bushu rittoo “knife.” The kanji 利 means “sharp;  useful; advantageous.”

  1. The kanji 件 “case; matter”

The seal style writing of the kanji 件 had イ “an act that a person does” and 牛 “an ox.” Together they signified “a person counting oxen in a herd” or “counting cases.” The kanji 件 means “case; matter.” [Composition of the kanji 件: イ  and 牛]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /ken/ is in 事件 “incidence; case” /ji’ken/, 条件付き “conditional” /jookentsuki/, 件名 “case name” /kenmee/, 別件 “separate charge; different case” /bekken/, 用件 “business; things to be done” /yooke’n/ and 人件費 “personnel expenses” /jinke’nhi/.

  1. The kanji 牧 “to herd cattle; a place where cattle graze; pasture”

For the kanji 牧 at the top left (a) had “sheep” while (b), (c), (d) and (e) all had “ox.” (The direction of the horns differentiated the two animals.) The bottom in all was “a hand holding a stick to herd sheep or oxen” (攴攵, a bushu bokunyuu “to cause.”) Where animals grazed was “pasture.” The kanji 牧 means “to herd cattle; a place where cattle graze; pasture.” [Composition of the kanji 牧: 牛 and 攵]

The kun-yomi /maki/ is in 牧場 “pasture; meadow” /makiba’/. The on-yomi /boku/ is in 放牧 “pasturage; grazing” /hooboku/, 牧師 “pastor; minister; cleric” /bo’kushi/, 遊牧 “nomadism” /yuuboku/, 牧場 “stock farm; ranch” /bokujoo/ and 牧歌的な “pastoral; idyllic” /bokkateki-na/.

  1. The kanji 牲 “sacrifice; sacrificial animal”

For the kanji 牲 the oracle bone style writing comprised “a sheep” and “a new emerging plant” used phonetically for /see/ to mean “life.” Together they signified “live sheep that was offered to a god as a sacrificial animal.” From bronze ware style on, however “an ox” was used. An ox is a big animal, and a sacrificial ox was more valuable than a smaller animal. The kanji 牲 means “sacrifice; sacrificial animal.” [Composition of the kanji 牲: 牛 and 生]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /see/ is in 犠牲になる“to sacrifice oneself” /gisee-ni na’ru/ and 犠牲者 “victim; prey” /gise’esha/.

The next four kanji 半判伴畔 contain 半, which came from a half of an axe.

6. The kanji 半 “a half”

For the kanj 半 the top of bronze ware style and seal style writings was ハ “to divide something in half” used phonetically for /han/. The bottom was “an ox.” Together they signified an ox that was cut in half.  In kanji ハ flipped upside down forming a sort of a truncated katakana ソ. The kanji 半 means “a half.”  [Composition of the kanji 半: a truncated ソ,二 and丨]

The kun-yomi 半ば /nakaba’/ means “the middle,” and is in 月半ば “middle of the month” /tsuki nakaba’/. The on-yomi /han/ is in 過半数 “majority; more than half” /kaha’nsuu/, 上半身 “the upper body” /jooha’nshin/, 生半可な “shallow; superficial” /namahanka-na/, 半可通 “superficial knowledge; smatterer” /hanka’tsuu/, 折半する “to cut into halves; split in half” /se’ppan-suru/ and 半べそをかく “be on the verge of crying” /hanbeso-o ka’ku/.

  1. The kanji 判 “a seal; to judge; discern”

For the kanji 判 the seal style writing comprised 半 “half” used phonetically for /han/ and “a knife” adding the meaning dividing something in half. After signing a contract both parties took one half of the contract as proof. In a dispute of a contract, a judge decided which party was right. In kanji the knife became 刂, a bushu rittoo. The kanji 判means “a seal; to judge; discern.” [Composition of the kanji 判: 半 and 刂]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is in 判子 “hanko seal” /hanko/, 判決 “judicial decision; ruling” /hanketsu/, 公判 “public trial” /koohan/, 小判 “koban; Japanese gold coin of the Edo period” /ko’ban/, 判定勝ち “winning on point” /hanteegachi/, 判読する “to decipher; make out” /handoku-suru/, 談判 “negotiation; bargaining” /da’npan/ and 判事 “judge” /ha’nji/.

  1. The kanji 伴 “to accompany someone; companion”

The seal style writing of the kanji 伴 comprised “an act that a person does,” which became イ, a bushu ninben in kanji, and 半 “half” used phonetically for /han/. They signified two people, each being a half of each other’s accompaniment. The kanji 伴 means “to accompany someone; companion.” [Composition of the kanji 伴: イ and 半]

The kun-yomi 伴う /tomona’u/ means “to accompany; bring in its train.” The on-yomi /han/ is in 同伴者 “one’s companion” /dooha’nsha/, お相伴する “to join for a meal” /oshooban-suru/, 伴走する “to pace set; run alongside” /bansoo-suru/ and 伴奏 “accompaniment in music” /bansoo/.

  1. The kanji 畔 “a side; a ridge”

For the kanji 畔 the seal style writing comprised 田 “rice paddies” and 半 used phonetically for /han/ tomean “the side.” They meant the side or ridge of rice paddies, which was used for a walk path. It also meant “side.” The kanji 畔 means “a side; a ridge.” [Composition of the kanji 畔: 田 and 半]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /han/ is in 湖畔”lakeside” /kohan/ and 河畔”riverside” /kahan/.

Now I return to my break. Thank you very much for your reading. –Noriko [June 24, 2018]

The Kanji 均句拘旬匂勾掲葛喝渇褐謁 – (3)

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On this post we are going to explore two shapes 勹 “a hook shape; (a body) bending down” in the kanji 均句拘旬匂勾, and 曷 used phonetically for /katsu/ in the kanji 掲葛喝渇褐謁.

  1. The kanji 均 “even; average”

History of Kanji 均For the kanji 均 the bronze ware style writing, in green, had “a long arm with a hand at the top wrapping around two short lines of even length.” Inside was 土 “soil.” They signified that a person was trying “to make the ground even with his hand.” In the seal style writing, in red, the soil was moved out to the left. From “leveling the ground,” the kanji 均means “even; average.” [The composition of the kanji 均: 土へん, 勹 and 冫]

The kun-yomi 均しい /hitoshi’i/ means “equivalent of; identical; exactly alike.” The on-yomi /kin/ is in 均一 “uniformity; equality” /kin-itsu/, 均等に “equally; evenly” /kintoo-ni/, 平均 “average” /heekin/, 不均衡 “imbalance; disproportion” /huki’nkoo/ and 百均ショップ “100-yen shop” /hyakkin-sho’ppu/.

  1. The kanji 句 “phrase”

History of Kanji 句For the kanji 句 in (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, inside two hooks there was 口 “mouth.” They meant “speech that was enclosed.” In (b), (c) and (d) “speaking; words” was taken out of the two interlocking hooks. The kanji 句means “phrase.”  [The composition of the kanji 句: 勹 and 口]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ku/ is in 禁句 “forbidden word; tabooed phrase” /kinku/, 慣用句 “idiom; common phrase” /kan-yo’oku/, 句読点 “punctuation mark” /kuto’oten/, 句切る “to punctuate; mark off with a comma; cut off” /kugi’ru/, 節句 “seasonal festival” /sekku/ and 一字一句 “every word and every phrase” /ichiji-i’kku/.

  1. The kanji 拘 “to seize; is particular about; adhere to”

History of Kanji 拘The seal style writing of the kanji 拘 comprised “an act that one does using a hand” and 句 “something bent; crooked” used phonetically for /koo/. They signified “to seize (by hand); bind.” It also means the way in which one is particular about a certain thing. The kanji 拘 means “to seize; is particular about; adhere to.”  [The composition of the kanji 拘:扌, 勹 and 口]

The kun-yomi 拘る /kodawa’ru/ means “to be obsessive; have a fixation; be a perfectionist” /kodawa’ru/, 拘束する”to restrict; shacke” /koosoku-suru/, 拘泥する “to worry too much about; be overpaticular about” /koodee-suru/, 拘置所 “prison; detention house” /koochisho/ and 拘留 “detention pending trial; custody” /kooryuu/.

  1. The kanji 旬 “ten days; in the season”

History of Kanji 旬For the kanji 旬 the oracle bone style writing was a coiling shape with a short line crossing at the end, perhaps signifying “a cycle with its end marked.” The bronze ware style writing had “the sun” added inside a semi-circle that was similar to 勻. During the Yin (Shang) dynasty the calendar used then had a cycle of ten days. A rounded shape suggested “a cycle of ten days.” In seal style the two short lines inside 勻 dropped. The kanji 旬 means “ten days,” which is one third of a month. In Japan it is also used to mean produce and fish that is “in the season”- the best time to eat. [The composition of the kanji 旬: 勹 and 日]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 旬 /shun/ means “in the season.”  /-Jun/ is in 上旬 “the first ten days of a moth” /joojun/, 中旬 “the second ten days of a month” /chuujun/ and 下旬 “the last ten days of a month” /gejun/.

  1. The kanji 匂 “fragrant; scent; aroma; beautiful; to hint”

The kanji 匂 was created in Japan and there is no ancient writing. 匂う meant “to shine beautifully,” as in the classical phrase (花が) 朝日に匂う”flowers shining beautifully in the morning sun,” but it is no longer seen in ordinary writing. The kanji 匂 means “fragrant; scent; aroma; beautiful; to hint.” (The kanji 匂う /nio’u/ is generally, but not always, used for a pleasant smell while 臭い /kusa’i/ is for an unpleasant smell.)  [The composition of the kanji 匂: 勹 and ヒ]

The kun-yomi 匂う /nio’u/ means “to smell,” and in 匂わせる “to suggest; hint; insinuate” /niowase’ru/ and 匂い “smell; fragrance” /nio’i/. There is no on-yomi.

  1. The kanji 勾 “hook; to enclose”

History of Kanji 勾The bronze ware style writing looked incomprehensively complex. I cannot make out what this writing originally signified and there is no account in reference. The kanji 勾comprises 勹 “a hooked shape” or “a body bending down” and ム used phonetically for /koo/ to mean “to bend.” The kanji 勾 means “hook; to catch; hitch.”  [The composition of the kanji 勾: 勹 and ム]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /koo/ is in 勾配 “slope; incline; pitch; gradient” /koobai/, 勾引 “bench warrant” /kooin/ and 勾留 “detention; custody” /kooryuu/. (勾 is a newly added Joyo kanji, and some words overlap with the kanji 拘.)

The next shape, 曷, was seen in the kanji 葛 and in the kyuji of the kanji 掲喝渇褐謁. The origin of 曷 remains mystery, but here is what has been said in reference.  History of Kanji 曷曷: The top was something coming out of a mouth, 曰 /etsu/, which meant “to say.” The bottom had a “person” (人) and a frame inside an semi enclosure 勹. The interpretations of this shape vary – (1) With “a box of prayers” on the top and “bones of a dead person” on the bottom together meant “praying so that the dead would grant a prayer’s wish” and 曷 was a voice of prayer (Shirakawa); (2) 曷 was “showing contempt and confining someone by a hand (勹)” (Kanjigen); and (3) it was used phonetically to meant “sound of scolding voice.”

Two things about the shape 曷: It was used phonetically in all kanji; 人 with “a screen” (?) in seal style remained in kyuji, but changed to ヒ, another shape to mean “person” in shinji in all kanji except 葛.

  1. The kanji 掲 “to display; hoist”

History of Kanji 掲For the kanji 掲 the seal style writing comprised 扌 “an act that one does using a hand” and 曷 used phonetically for /kee/ to mean “to hoist.” Together a hand hoising something up means “to display; put up.” The kanji 掲 means “to display; hoist.”  [The composition of the kanji 掲: 扌, 日and 匂]

The kun-yomi 掲げる /kakageru/ means “to put up; hoist; herald,” as in 主義主張を掲げる “to advocate principles and opinions” /shu’gishuchoo-o kakageru/. The on-yomi /kee/ is in 掲示する “to post; put up a notice” /keejiban/, 掲載 “to print; put in; run an article” /keesai-suru/ and 電光掲示板 “electric bulletin board” /denkoo-keejiban/.

  1. The kanji 葛 “kuzuvine; kuzuroot starch”

History of Kanji 葛The seal style writing of the kanji 葛 comprised 艸 “plants” and 曷used phonetically for /katsu/. Together they meant “kuzuvine.” The fibers in the vine were used for weaving. Its root provides good starch for cooking. The kanji 葛 means “kuzu vine; kuzu root starch.” The kanji 葛 is the only Joyo kanji that retained the kyuji shape 曷, even though the kanji with 匂 at the bottom is seen as a popular informal shape.  [The composition of the kanji 葛: 艹 and 曷]

The kun-yomi 葛 /ku’zu/ means “kuzu root starch,” and is in 葛粉 “kuzu starch” /kuzuko’/, 葛切り “slices of kuzu jelly with syrup (as sweets)” /kuzukiri/ and 葛桜 “cherry-leaf-covered kuzu filled with sweet azuki bean” /kuzuza’kura/. The on-yomi /katsu/ is in 葛藤 “an entanglement; embroilment” /kattoo/. (Both 葛 and 藤 “Japanese wisteria” /huji/ are vines.)

  1. The kanji 喝 “to shout; scold”

History of Kanji 喝For the kani 喝 the seal style writing comprised 口 “mouth; to speak” and 曷 used phonetically for /katsu/ to mean “to scold in a loud voice.” The kanji 喝 meant “to shout; scold.” [The composition of the kanji 喝: 口, 日 and 匂]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /katsu/ is in 喝采する “to applaud; cheer loudly” /kassai-suru/, 拍手喝采 “clapping and sheering; enthusiastic applause” /ha’kushu kassai/, 恐喝する “to blackmail; extort” /kyookatsu-suru/ and 喝を入れる “to give a pep talk” /ka’tsu-o iresu/.

  1. The kanji 渇 “to thirst for; dry out”

History of Kanji 渇For the kanji 渇 the bronze ware style writing had “running water” on the left, and the right side was used phonetically for /katsu/ to mean “lack of.” The seal style writing had “a mouth open” (曰) and “a person disappearing” (亡) in 勹, but what those components meant is not clear. The kanji 渇 means “to be thirst; dry out; thirsty.” [The composition of the kanji 渇:氵, 日 and 匂]

The kun-yomi 渇く/kawa’ku/ means “to crave; thirst for,” as in 喉が渇く”to become thirsty” /no’do-ga kawa’ku/.  The on-yomi /katsu/ is in 渇する “to dry up; suffer from thirst” /kassuru/, 渇望 “craving for; longing for” /katsuboo/, 枯渇する “to dry up; be drained” /kokatsu-suru/ and 渇水時 “period of drought” /kassu’iji/.

  1. The kanji 褐 “brown; humble clohtes”

History of Kanji 褐For the kanji 褐 the seal style writing comprised 衣 “clothes” and 曷 used phonetically for /katsu/ to mean “kuzu vine.” Clothes or footware made by weaving vines signified “humble simple clothes.” It also meant “brown” from the color of humble clothes dyed in dull color from vines and other plants. The kanji 褐 means “brown; (humble clothes).”  [The composition of the kanji 褐: 衤, 日 and 匂]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /katsu/ is in 褐色 “brown” /kasshoku/ and 茶褐色 “dark reddish brown” /chaka’sshoku/.

  1. The kanji 謁 “to be received in loyal audience”

History of Kanji 謁For the kanji 謁 the seal style writing comprised 言 “word; language; to say” and 曷 used phonetically for /etsu/. To say something to a ruler became the meaning “to be received in loyal audience.” [The composition of the kanji 謁: 言, 日 and 匂]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /etsu/ is in 謁見 “imperial audience” /ekken/, 拝謁する “to be received in audience by His (or Her) Majesty” /haietsu-suru/.

Thank you very much for your reading. – Noriko [June 10, 2018]

The Kanji 参杉診珍惨乙乱札孔乳- Shapes (1)

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For the last category of kanji origin in our exploration, we are going to look at components that originated from a shape. In this post, we are going to see 彡 which signified “pretty shape; needle shapeslining up neatly” in the kanji 参杉診珍惨. The second shape is 乚, which signified “an act of flattening or straightening”– the kanji 乙乱札孔乳.

  1. The kanji 参 “to mingle; come; come/go in humble style”

History of Kanji 参For the kanji 参 in bronze ware style, in green, (a) was “a kneeling woman with three shining hair-accessories while (b) had three lines which signified “bright reflections of light mingled each other” added. The mingling shines gave the meaning “to mingle; come.” The top of (c) in seal style, in red, had “three bright things” (日), and 彡 used phonetically for /san/. (d) in the kyuji 參, in blue,the three 日 became three ム shapes, which was further reduced to one ム in shinji. In Japan it is used for a humble style verb in 参 “to come; go,” and for a visit to a shrine, temple or cemetery. The kanji 参 means “to mingle; come; come/go in humble style.” [The composition of the kanji 参: ム, 一, 𠆢 and 彡]

The kun-yomi /ma’iru/ means “to come (in a humble style); pay a visit”and is in 墓参り(“visit to a grave” /hakama’iri/). The on-yomi /san/ was in 参加する (“to participate in” /sanka-suru/), 参考書 (“reference book” /sankoosho/), 参詣 (“a visit to a temple; worship” /sankee/), 参列する (“to attend a ceremony” /sanretsu-suru/) and 持参する (“to bring something with oneself; bear; carry” /jisan-suru/). /-Zan/ is in 新参者 (“a newcomer; novice” /shinzanmono/) and 人参 (“carrot” /ninjin/).

  1. The kanji 杉 “cedar”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 杉. The kanji 杉 comprises 木 “tree; wood” and 彡used phonetically for /san/ to mean “needle-likethin shapes lining up neatly.” The needle leaves of a cedar tree neatly lined up and were beautiful. The kanji 杉 means “cedar.” [The composition of the kanji 杉: 木 and 彡]

The kun-yomi 杉 /sugi/ means “cedar” and is in 秋田杉 (“Akita cedar” /akita’sugi/) and 杉綾(“herringbone pattern” /sugiaya/). There is no on-yomi in Joyo kanji.

  1. The kanji 診 “medical diagnose; examine”

History of Kanji 診The seal style writing of the kanji 診 had 言 “word; language” on the left. The right side had “a person” with 彡 “rash” used phonetically for /shin/ to mean “to check thoroughly.” The kanji 診 means “medical diagnose; examine.” [The composition of the kanji:言, 𠆢 and 彡]

The kun-yomi 診る /mi’ru/ means “to examine medically.” The on-yomi /shin/ is in 診察(“medical examination” /shinsatsu/), 往診 (“visit to a patient; house call” /ooshin/), 診療所 (“clinic” /shinryoojo/) and 検診 (“health screening” /kenshin/).

  1. The kanji 珍 “rare; uncommon”

History of Kanji 珍The seal style writing of the kanji 珍 comprised 王 “jewel” and “a person encircling something beautiful (彡)” used phonetically for /chin/. Together they meant “beautiful things such as jewels not being common.” The kanji 珍measn “rare; uncommon.”  [The composition of the kanji : 王, 𠆢 and 彡]

The kun-yomi 珍しい /mezurashi’i/ means “rare; uncommon” and is in 物珍しい (“curious; novel” /monomezurashi’i/). The on-yomi /chin/ is in 珍品 (“rarity; curiosity” /chinpin/), 珍味 (“a delicacy” /chi’nmi/) and 珍事件 (“rare event; funny case” /chinji’ken/).

  1. The kanji 惨 “to feel miserable; cruel”

History of Kanji 惨For the kanji 惨 the seal style writing had “a heart,” which became a bushu risshinbenin (忄) in the kyuji 慘. On the right side the shine 參 was used phonetically for /san/ to mean “to be impressed in one’s heart deeply.” Together they meant “one experiencing a deeply-felt emotion such as misery and cruelty.” The kanji 惨 means “to feel miserable; cruel.” [The composition of the kanji : 忄and 参]

The kun-yomi 惨めな /mi’jime-na/ means “miserable.” The on-yomi /san/ is in 悲惨な (“cruel” /hisan-na/), 惨事 (“terrible disaster; tragedy” /sa’nji/), 陰惨な (“grisly; gloomy” /insan-na/) and 凄惨な (“ghastly; gruesome” /seisan-na/).

There are several more kanji that contain the shape 彡, including 影形彩修彰彫.

The second shape 乚 means “an act of flattening or straightening,” and appears in the kanji 乱札孔乳礼 on this post. (For the kanji 礼, we discussed a year ago in connection with a bushu shimesuhen).

  1. The kanji 乙 “second; not the first”

History of Kanji 乙For the kanji 乙 the writings in three anceint style were a bent shape on both ends. The shape was borrowed to mean “second; not the first” in combination of the kanji 甲 /ko’o/, which means “the first; good” and 丙 /he’e/ “third-rate: not good; poor.”  [The composition of the kanji: a single stroke of 乙]

The kun-yomi /oto/ is in 乙女 (“maiden” /oto’me//), a phonetical substitute. The on-yomi 乙  /otsu/ is in 甲乙を付ける (“to mark grades” /ko’ootsu-o tsuke’ru/) and 甲乙付け難い (“there is little difference between the two” /ko’ootsu tsukegata’i/).

  1. The kanji 乱 “to be out of order; rebellion; battle”

History of Kanji 乱For the kanji 乱 (a) and (b) in bronze ware style may be better explained by the left side of (c) in seal style. It was a hand at the top and another hand at the bottom was straightening tangles threads on a spool in the middle. The right side was a bent shape that signified “to straighten.” Together they meant “hands trying to untangle threads to make them into a good order.” The kyuji 亂, (d), was replaced by drastically simpler 舌 in the shinji 乱. The kanji 乱 means “to be out of order; rebellion; battle.”  [The composition of the kanji: 千, 口 and 乚]

The kun-yomi 乱れる /midare’ru/ means “to be out of order,” and is in 入り乱れる (“to be mixed and confused” /irimidare’u/) and 取り乱す (“to go to pieces; become upset” /torimida’su/). The on-yomi /ran/ is in 乱 (“battle” /ran/), 混乱 (“chaos; confusion” /ko’nran/), 乱雑な (“random” /ranzatsu-na/), 散乱する (“to be scattered about” /sanran-suru/), 内乱 (“civil war” /nairan/), 乱世 (“troubled time” /ra’nse/) and 一心不乱 (“absorbed; engrossed” /isshi’nhuran/).

  1. The kanji 札 “a tag; name place; paper money”

History of Kanji 札The seal style writing of the kanji 札 comprised 木 “wood” and 乚 “a bent shape that signified an act of flattening or straightening.” The writing meant “a thin flat piece of wood” such as a tag, a posted announcement and also paper money. The kanji 札means “a tag; name place; bank note.” [The composition of the kanji 札: 木 and 乚]

The kun-yomi 札 /huda/ means “tag; name place” and is in 荷札 (“luggage tag” /nihuda/) and 切り札 (“a trump card” /kiri’huda/), The on-yomi /satsu/ is in お札 (“bill; note” /osatsu/), 札束 (“wad of bills” /satsuta’ba/), 改札口 (“wicket” /kaisatsu’guchi/), 一万円札 (“ten thousand yen note” /ichimanen’satsu/) and 入札制 (“bidding system” /nyuusatsusee/).

  1. 孔 “a hole; cavity”

History of Kanji 孔For the kanji 孔 (a) and (b) had “a child” on the left side. What the right side attached to the child’s head signified is clear, but many scholars view that it signified some sort of a hole. The kanji 孔 means “a hole; cavity.” [The composition of the kanji 孔: 子 and 乚]

The kun-yomi 孔 /ana’/ means “opening; perforation; hole.” The on-yomi /koo/ is in 換気孔(“ventilation hole” /kankikoo/), 鼻孔 (”nostril” /bikoo/) and 孔子 (“Confucius” /kooshi/).

  1. 乳 “milk; milking; breast”

History of Kanji 乳For the kanji 乳 in oracle bone style a woman on her knees was nursing or holding a child in her arms. It meant “to nurse; breast; milk.” In seal style it had “a hand from above” and “a child” on the left. For the right side (乚) there are different interpretations, including “a hand to care for a baby,” “a swallow,” which was believed to bring a baby, like a stork in Western folk tales, and “supporting an infant.” The kanji 乳 means “milk; milking; breast.” [The composition of the kanji 乳: 孚 and 乚]

The kun-yomi /chi’chi/ 乳 means “milk; breast,” and is in 乳飲み子 (“infant” /chinomi’go/). The on-yomi /nyuu/ is in 牛乳 (“cow’s milk“ /gyuunyuu/), 母乳 (“mother’s milk” /bonyuu/), 乳歯 (“baby tooth” /nyu’ushi/ and 豆乳 (“soy bean milk” /toonyuu/).

I expect that we shall have three more posts before we wrap up our long exploration.  Thank you very much for your interest.  – Noriko [May 27, 2018]

The Kanji 費払仏沸者着諸緒著暑煮 -(6)

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We have been exploring kanji that originated from a shape that something was tied up or a bundle of things. This is the sixth and last post in this group. The shapes we are going to look at on this post are: 弗 “to disperse” from a bunch of bent twigs that were bundled together by a rope but would not stay together – the kanji 費払仏沸; and 者 phonetically used for /sha/ from “a bundle of wooden sticks gathered in a stove being burned” –  the kanji 者着諸緒著暑煮.

History of Kanji 弗For the shape 弗 the history shown on the right in three different styles of ancient writing all had two bent lines and a rope around them. They signified that bent or crooked sticks were roped together in order to straighten, but the force of curling back was stronger and they would not stay straight and came apart. It meant “disperse” and it is used phonetically for /hutsu/ in kanji.

  1. The kanji 費 “to spend (money or time); cost; waste”

History of Kanji 費Forthe kanji 費 the bronze ware style writing, in green, comprised 弗 “to disperse” used phonetically for /hi/, 刂 “a knife” and 貝 “cowrie; money,” together signifying “to spend money.” In seal style, in red, the knife was dropped. It is also used for time, such as “spending time; wasting time.” Together they meant “cost; to spend money; require (time).” [Relating to this kanji, the top 弗 looks similar to the dollar sign $. So by itself it is customarily used to mean “dollar” in Japanese. [The composition of the kanji 費: 弗 and 貝]

The kun-yomi 費やす /tsuiya’su/ means “to spend (money; time),” as in 時間を費やす(“to spend time” /jikan-o tsuiya’su/). The on-yomi /hi/ is in費用 (“expenses” /hiyoo/), 私費 (“private expense” /shi’hi/), 浪費 (“waste” /roohi/). /-Pi/ is in 実費 (“actual expense; costs” /jippi/).

  1. The kanji払“to pay money; pay attention; brush off”

History of Kanji 払For the kanji 払t he seal style writing  had “a hand; an act that one does using a hand” and 弗 “to come apart” used phonetically for /hutsu/. Together “a hand pushing something away” meant “to brush off.” It also meant “to pay money or attention.” The right side of the kyuji 拂, in blue, was simplified with ム, a segment often used for simplification in other kanji as well. The kanji 払 means “to pay money; pay attention; brush off.”  [The composition of the kanji 払: 扌and ム]

The kun-yomi 払う /hara’u/ is used in お金を払う (“to pay money” /okane-o har’u/), 埃を払う (“brush off dust” /hokori-o hara’u/) and 注意を払う( “to pay attention” /chu’ui-o hara’u/), 支払い (“payment”/shiharai/) and 月払い (“monthly payment” /tsukiba’rai/). The on-yomi /hutsu/ is in 払拭する (“to wipe off” /husshoku-suru/)/.

  1. The kanji 仏 “Buddha; Buddhism; France”

History of Kanji 仏For the kanji 仏 the left side of the seal style writing was “a person; an act one does” and the right side (弗) was used phonetically for hutsu. When the Buddhism came to China from India, the Sanskrit word Buddha was written phonetically as 佛陀 Budda. The right side of the kyuji 佛 was replaced byム. Phonetically it is also used for 仏蘭西 “France” for having the first syllable /hu/. The kanji 仏 means “Buddha; Buddhism; France.” [The composition of the kanji 仏: イ and ム]

The kun-yomi 仏 /hotoke/ and 仏様 /hotoke-sa’ma/ mean “buddha.” The on-yomi /hutsu/ is 旧仏領 (old French colony” /kyu’u hutsuryoo/.) /-Butsu/ is in 大仏 (“big Buddha statue” /daibutsu/).

  1. The kanji 沸“to boil water; gush”

History of Kanji 沸The seal style writing of the kanji 沸 comprised “water” and 弗 used phonetically for hutsuto mean “to boil.” (/Hutsu/ was the onomatopoeia of water boiling.) Together they meant water gushing out in a spring. Boiling water looks similar to a spring. It was used to mean “to boil.” The kanji 沸 means “to boil water; bubble up.” [The composition of the kanji 沸: 氵and 弗]

The kun-yomi /waku/  and its transitive counterpart /wakasu/ means “to boil.” The on-yomi /hutsu/ is in 沸騰する (“to boil” /huttoo-suru/), 沸点 (“boiling point” /hutten/), 煮沸消毒 (“boiling sterilization” /shahutsu-sho’odoku/).

For the kanji 者 the history is shown in 5 the kanji 者 as used by itself. As a component it appears in the kanji 諸煮暑緒著着.

  1. The kanji 者“person”

History of Kanji 者For the kanji 者 in (a), (b) and (c) twigs in a container or stove were being burned with sparkles of fire. From early times it was borrowed to mean “this; person.” The kyuji 者 (d) kept a dot in the middle as the remnant of sparkles of fire, but it was deleted in shinji. The kanji 者means “person.”  (In modern use “this” as a demonstrative word is not used.” [The composition of the kanji 者: 耂 and 曰]

The kun-yomi 者 /mono’/ means “person,” and is in 悪者 (“bad guy; villain” /warumono/), 回し者 (“spy” /mawashimono/). The on-yomi /sha/ is in 医者 (“medical doctor” /isha/), 記者 (“reporter; journalist” /ki’sha/), 希望者 (“applicant” /kibo’osha/), 加入者 (“new member” /kanyu’usha/).

  1. The kanji 着”to attach; to put clothes on; wear; arrive (at a place)”

History of Kanji 着There is no ancient writing for the kanji 着. (a) was an inscription on a stone stele and (b) was the Correct style writing 著.  The kanji 着 was a variant of 著. In Japanese the two kanji have different use: 著 means “to author; stand out” whereas 着means “to attach; to put clothes on; wear; arrive (at a place).” [The composition of the kanji 着: 羊 without the vertical line going through, ノand 目]

The kun-yomi 着る /kiru/ means “to wear,” and is in 着物 (“kimono; traditional Japanese attire” /kimono/). Another kun-yomi着く /tsu’ku/ means “to arrive.” The on-yomi /chaku/ is in一着 (“one piece of clothes” /icchaku/), 着服 (“embezzlement” /chakuhuku-suru/), 到着時間 (“arrival time” /toochaku-ji’kan/), 着手する (“to start up” /cha’kushu-suru/) and 接着剤 (“glue; adhesive” /secchakuzai/).

  1. The kanji 諸“various; many; all”

History of Kanji 諸For the kanji 諸the bronze ware style writing was the same as 者. It was used phonetically for /sho/ to mean “many.” In 2 言 “word; language” was added. Together they meant “many words,” and also meant “many; various; all” in general. The kanji 諸 means “various; many; all.” [The composition of the kanji 諸: 言 and 者]

The kun-yomi /moro/ is in 諸々の (“various; many all” /moromoro-no/). The on-yomi /sho/ is in 諸事情 (“various reasons” /shoji’joo/), 諸君 (“Gentlemen!” /sho’kun/), 学生諸君 (“All our students” /gakusee-sho’kun/) and 読者諸氏 (“All readers” /dokushasho’shi/).

  1. The kanji 緒 “beginning; rope; string; together”

History of Kanji 緒For the kanji 緒 the seal style writing comprised 糸 “a skein of threads” and 者 used phonetically for /sho/ to mean “beginning,” as in 初. Together they signified “the beginning of a long continuous thing, such as a string or rope.” A rope put things together and signified “together.” The kyuji 緖, 2, lost the dot in the middle in shinji. The kanji 緒 means “beginning; rope; string.” [The composition of the kanji 緒: 糸 and 者]

The kun-yomi 緒 /o/ means “string,” as in 兜の緒 (“strings on kabuto armor” /kabuto-no-o’/) and 鼻緒 (“a strap on geta or zoori footwear” /hanao/). The on-yomi /sho/ is in 一緒 (“together” /issho/), 内緒 (“secrecy; privacy” /naisho/, 由緒 (“history; origin” /yu’isho/). Another on-yomi /cho/ is in 情緒 (“emotion; atmosphere” /jo’ocho/).

  1. The kanji 著“to write a book; conspicuous; to stand out”

History of Kanji 着For the kanji 著 the seal style writing comprised 竹“bamboo” and 者 used phonetically for /sho; cho/. Bamboo stalks were versatile, and among them was the material for making a writing brush. It meant “to write a book.” In kyuji 著, 2, however, the bamboo top was replaced by 艹, a bushu kusakanmuri “plants.” It was also used to mean “to make meaning clear; to standout; conspicuous.” The kanji 著 means “to write a book; conspicuous; to stand out.” [The composition of the kanji 著: 艹 and 者]

The kun-yomi 著す /arawa’su/ means “to write a book.” Another kun-yomi 著しい /ichijirushi’i/ means “to stand out.” The on-yomi /cho/ is in 著者 (“author” /cho’sha/), 名著 (“famous book” /me’echo/) and 顕著な (“remarkable” /ke’ncho-na/).

  1. The kanji 暑“(to feel) hot in atmospheric temperature”

History of Kanji 暑For the kanji 暑 in seal style “the sun” (日) was added to 者 “a bundle of wood sticks gathered in a stove to burn”used phonetically for /sho/. “The sun” and “burning fire” together made the kyuji 暑, 2, that meant “hot in atmospheric temperature.” The kanji 暑 means “(to feel) hot in atmospheric temperature.”  [The composition of the kanji 暑: 日and 者]

The kun-yomi /atsu‘i/ means “hot,” and is in 蒸し暑い (“hot and humid” /mushiatsu’i/). The on-yomi /sho/ is in 暑気当たり (“heatstroke” /shokia’tari/), 暑中見舞い (“summer greeting card” /shochuumi’mai/) and 残暑 (“lingering summer heat” /za’nsho/).

  1. The kanji 煮“to cook over a fire; simmer; boil”

History of Kanji 者The history of the kanji 煮 intertwined with another kanji 庶. In (a) and (b) it had “a kitchen stove with a pot,” and was /sha/ phonetically. It would become the kanji 庶. It meant “to cook over a fire.” On the other hand the seal style writing (c) comprised “a stove with burning sticks” containing 者 at the top and “a storage tripod pot” at the bottom. Another seal style (d) would become 遮. The kyuji 煮 (e) comprised 者, with a dot, and 灬, a bushu rekka/renga “fire.” The kanji 煮 means “to cook over a fire; simmer; boil.” [The composition of the kanji 煮: 者 and 灬]

The kun-yomi 煮 /niru/ means “to boil; simmer; seethe,” and is in 煮物 (“simmered food; cooked food” /nimono/), 生煮え (“undercooked; raw” /namanie/), 味噌煮(“simmered in misopaste” /misoni/). The on-yomi /sha/ is in 煮沸する (“to boil” /shahutsu-suru/).

We end our exploration on a group of tied objects here. I believe I have a few more posts to write before we end our exploration. Thank you very much for your reading.  -Noriko [May 19, 2018]

The Kanji 束速整頼瀬疎勅必密秘蜜泌-(5)

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On this post we are going to explore two shapes that originated from a bundle of stuff. The first shape is 束, which was “a bundle of firewood tied around,” and the six Jojo kanji that contain are 束速整頼瀬疎勅. The second shape is 必, which was”something bound so tightly that it would not  allow any move” — the shape 必in the five kanji 必密秘蜜泌. Let us begin with 束.

  1. The kanji 束 “a bundle; to bind; a brief time”

History of Kanji 束For the kanji 束in (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, in green, and (d) in seal style, in red, it was “a bundle of firewood tied around.” It meant “a bundle” or “things that were bound together.” In Japanese it also applies on time and means “a brief time.” The kanji 束 means “a bundle; to bind; a brief time.”  [The composition of the kanji 束: 一, 口、丨 and two strokes like 八]

The kun-yomi 束 /ta’ba/ means “bundle,” and is in 花束 (“bouquet of flowers” /hana’taba/) and 束ねる (“to bundle” /tabane’ru/). The on-yomi /soku/ is in 束縛する (“to restrain” /sokubaku-suru/), 結束する (“to band together; become united” /kessoku-suru/), and /-zoku/ is in 装束 (“costume; attire” /shoozoku/).

  1. The kanji 速 “fast; swift”

History of Kanji 速For the kanji 速 the bronze ware style writing had “stuff tied with a rope in the middle and at both ends” (after the last four posts we are now familiar with this shape as 東, aren’t we?) used phonetically for sokuto mean “quick; to rush.” The bottom had “a crossroad” and “a footprint,” which became 辵 in seal style, and further to 辶, a bushu shinnyoo “to go forward” in kanji. In seal style the tied stuff with strings around it was 束. Together they meant “fast.” The history of the kanji 速 having 東 and 束 suggests that it was likely that they were variations of things tied around. The kanji 速 means “fast; swift.” [The composition of the kanji 速: 束 and 辶]

The kun-yomi 速い /haya’i/ means “fast.” The on-yomi /soku/ is in 速度 (“speed” /so’kudo/), 秒速 (“speed per second” /byoosoku/), 迅速に (“swiftly” /jinsoku-ni/), 速達(“express mail” /sokutatsu/) and 快速電車 (“limited express train” /kaisoku-de’nsha/).

  1. The kanji 整 “to put in good order”

History of Kanji 整For the kanji 整 the left side of the bronze ware style writing had 束 “a bundle” and 正 “correct; just.” The right side had “a hand with a tool,” signifying “to cause something.” Together they signified “sorting things in bundles in good order.” In the seal style writing a hand holding a tool (攴) was shortened and became 敕 in the kanji. The kanji 整 means “to put in good order.”  [The composition of the kanji 整: 束, 攵 and 正]

The kun-yomi 整える /totonoe’ru/ means “to put in good order.” The on-yomi /see/ is in 整理する (“to put in good order” /se’eri-suru/), 調整 (“adjustment” /choosee/), 整然とした (“orderly” /seezentoshita/) and 交通整理 (“traffic control” /kootsuu-se’eri/).

  1. The kanji 頼 “dependable; to rely; request”

History of Kanji 頼For the kanji 頼 the seal style writing comprised 束“a bundle” and 刀“a knife” and 貝 “a cowry; money” used phonetically for /rai; ra/ to mean “profit.” Together “a part of a bundle of valuable things was carved out with a knife” gave the meaning “extra profit.” Having extra fortune make one that others might “rely on.” The kyuji 賴, in blue, reflected the seal style writing. In the shinji 頼 the simplification of the right side resulted in an unrelated component 頁. The kanji 頼 means “dependable; to rely; request.”   [The composition of the kanji 頼: 束and 頁]

The kun-yomi 頼む /tano’mu/ means “to request,” and /-dano/ is in 神頼み (/kamida’nomi/ “to turn to God for help”) and 頼りになる (“dependable” /ta’yori-ni-naru/). The on-yomi /rai/ is in 依頼する (“to request” /irai-suru/) and 信頼 (“trust” /shinrai/).

  1. The kanji 瀬 “rapids; one’s narrow ground”

History of Kanji 瀬For the kanji 瀬 the seal style writing comprised “water” and 賴 used phonetically for rai. It was considered to be the sound of rapids in a river. Together they meant “rapids.” Rapids were in the shallows where banks made the water flow narrow. It also meant “one’s predicament; one’s narrow ground.” As in the case of 頼, the simplification of the right side brought in 頁. The kanji 瀬 means “rapids; one’s narrow ground.” [The composition of the kanji 瀬: 氵,束and頁]

The kun-yomi /se/ is in 立つ瀬がない (“to be in a bind; in a tight corner” /ta’tsuse-ga-nai/), 瀬戸際 (“critical moment” /setogiwa/) and 瀬戸物 (“crockery; dishware” from pottery made in Seto /setomono/).

  1. The kanji 疎 “coarse; not close”

History of Kanji 疎For the kanji 疎 the seal style writing (䟽) comprised “a leg” and “a fine-toothed comb,” as in 梳 “to comb; to untangle by separating hair.” In 疏, 2 in kyuji, the left side 疋 “leg” was used phonetically for sho. Together they meant “to go through between gaps” and meant “coarse; not close.” Not being close also gave the meaning “distant; to alienate“In kanji the right side was replaced by 束 “a bundle.” The kanji 疎 means “coarse; not close; distant; to alienate.”[The composition of the kanji 疎: a variation of 正 and 束]

The kun-yomi 疎い /uto’i/ means “unacquainted with; distant.” The on-yomi /so/ is in 疎外感 (“feeling of being estranged” /sogai’kan/) and 意思の疎通 (“communication of one’s t’oughts; mutual understanding” /i’shi-no-sotsuu/).

  1. The kanji 勅 “imperial edict”

History of Kanji 勅For the kanji 勅 the seal style writing had “a bundle” (束) and “a plough” (力) or “a hand.” Together they originally meant “to bundle things in good order.” The kyuji 敕 came to be used to mean “imperial edict.” Its informal kanji 勅 became the shinji. The kanji 勅 means “imperial edict.” [The composition of the kanji 勅: 束 and 力]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /choku/ is in 勅語 (“an imperial eidict; a speech from the Throne” /cho’kugo/).

  1. The kanji 辣 “cruel; blistering; caustic”

There is no ancient writing and the kanji 辣 was created much later. It comprised 辛 “pungent; hard; tough” and 束used phonetically for /ratsu/. (束 was an abbreviated form of the kanji 剌 /ratsu/ “to sting.”) 辛 and 束 together gave the meaning “spicy; cruel. The kanji 辣 means “cruel; blistering; caustic.”[The composition of the kanji 辣: 辛 and 束]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ra/ is in悪辣な(“villainous” ‘akuratsu-na/) and 辛辣な(“biting” /shinratsu-na/).

The next shape 必appear in the five Joyo kanji- 必密秘蜜泌.

  1. The kanji 必 “without fail; inevitable; (with negative) not necessarily”

FHistory of Kanji 必or the kanji 必 in (a) and (b) in bronze ware style and (c) in seal style it was “a tool for straightening an arrow by tightening flush.” Something being tightly bound did not allow any move. From that it meant “without fail.” Having no other option also meant “inevitable,” and with a negative it means “not necessarily; not entirely.” The kanji 必 means “without fail; inevitable; (with negative) not necessarily.”

The kun-yomi 必ず /kanara-zu/ means “without fail.” The on-yomi /hitsu/ is in 必要な(“necessary” /hitsuyoo-na/), 必然的な (“inevitable” /hitsuzenteki-na/) and 必死になって(“run for one’s life; desperately” /hisshi-ni-na’tte/).

  1. The kanji 密 “secret; dense; close”

History of Kanji 密For the kanji 密 in (a) and (b) the top was “a tightly wrapped halberd inside a house or shrine,” and the bottom was a “fire.” A fire had a cleansing power in religious rite. From a rite that was conducted hidden inside meant “secret.” In (c) in seal style the bottom became a mountain, most likely miscopied from the original “a fire.” The kanji 密 means “secret; dense.”  [The composition of the kanji 密: 宀, 必 and 山]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /mitsu/ is in 秘密 (“secret” /himitsu/), 機密書類(“confidential documents” /kimitsu-sho’rui/) and 精密機器 (“precision instrument” /seemitsu-ki’kai/), 密会 (“secrete meeting; clandestine meeting” /mikkai/) and 密着する (“stick fast to; adhere closely” /micchaku-suru/).

  1. The kanji 秘 “secret; to hide”

History of Kanji 秘For the kanji 秘the seal style and the kyuji 祕comprised 示“an altar table with offering” and 必used phonetically for hito mean “secret.” Together they signified “a religious rite secretly performed” or “secret.” In the shinji 秘, 示was replaced by 禾, a bushu nogihen“rice plant” for a reason that was unclear. The kanji 秘means “secret; to hide.” [The composition of the kanji 秘:禾and 必]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /hi/ is in 秘密(“secret” /himitsu/) and 極秘(“strictly confidential; top secrecy” /gokuhi/).

  1. The kanji蜜 “honey; nector”

History of Kanji 蜜In seal style of the kanji 蜜 the top of (a) had “a tripod inside a house” and “two worms” signifying “bees.” Bees produced “honey,” which was kept in a pot. In (b) 貝was replaced by 必for /mitsu/. The kanji 蜜 means “honey; nector.” [The composition of the kanji 蜜: 宀, 必 and 虫]

The kun-yomi 蜜 /mitsu/ means “honey” and is in 蜂蜜 (“bee honey” /hachimitsu/) and 花の蜜 (“flower nector” /hana-no-mi’tsu/).

  1. The kanji 泌 “to seep; ooze; run”

History of Kanji 泌The seal style writing of the kanji 泌comprised “water” and 必used phonetically for hitsu. In the origin of 必things such as an arrow was bound tightly, leainvg little space in between. Together they meant “water running through a narrow path.” The sound was onomatopic. In Japan the kanji 泌is used to mean “to seep; ooze; run.” [The composition of the kanji 泌: 氵and 必]

The kun-yomi is 沁みる /shimiru/ “to seep; ooze.” The on-yomi /pi/ is in 分泌(“secretion; discharge” /bunpi/).

We shall have one more post on the shapes that originated from a tied object. I find it very surprising to find so many shapes in this group.  Thank you very much for your reading.  –Noriko [May 12, 2018]

The Kanji 補捕浦舗哺博敷薄簿縛- (4)

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The kanji 専, which we looked at in the last post, and the right side of 博 differ only in a tiny dot at the top right. It is the results of simplification that ended up with the two shapes resembling to each other almost identical. We have seen that the kyuji of 専, 專, came from a hand holding a spindle with a whorl at the bottom. In the shinji the little whorl was deleted. On the other hand if you look at the kyuji shape of the right side of the 博, 尃, very closely, the top was 甫 (The development is shown between the kanji 5 哺 and 6 博 below).  In the shinji the bottom was “shaved off” for simplicity. Through standardization of shapes the original meanings were lost. Having going over the development of all Joyo kanji now I am quite amazed at the fact that origins were preserved in the majority of Joyo kanji, if we look for them. But this is not one of them. Let us look at the kanji that were related to 甫 on this post – the kanji 補捕浦舗哺・博敷薄簿縛.

History of Kanji 甫The shape 甫 “to protect” — It was a young plant whose roots were wrapped for protection in a net. Another view is that it was nursery of rice plant seedlings, giving the meaning “to spread.” It was used phonetically for /ho/. 甫 by itself is not used as kanji but it is a component of the kanji 補捕浦舗哺.

  1. The kanji 補 “to fill a gap; supplement; compensate”

History of Kanji 補For the kanji 補 the seal style writing comprised 衣 “clothes” and 甫 “a young plant whose roots were wrapped around” or “rice plant nursery” used phonetically for /ho/, together signifying “mending a hole in clothes.” The meaning was extended for more general use. In kanji “clothes” (衣) became 衤, a bushu koromohen“clothes.” The kanji 補 means “to fill a gap; supplement; compensate.” [The composition of the kanji 補: 衤 and 甫]

The kun-yomi 補う /ogina’u/ means “to compensate for; supplement.” The on-yomi /ho/ is in 補修工事 (“repair work maintenance work” /hoshuuko’oji/), 補助 (“assistance; support” /ho’jo/), 候補 (“candidate; the just the person for the job” /ko’oho/) and 補償する (“to indemnify; make up for” /hoshoo-suru/).

  1. The kanji 捕 “to catch; seize”

History of Kanji 捕For the kanji 捕 the seal style writing comprised “hand; an act one does using a hand” (扌, a bushu tehen in kanji) and “roots of a young plant wrapped well” (甫) used phonetically for /ho/ to mean “to grab.” Together they signified “grabbing something by hand firmly.” The kanji 捕 means “to catch; seize.” [The composition of the kanji 捕: 扌 and 甫]

The kun-yomi 捕まえる /tsukamaeru/ means “to capture; seize.” Another kun-yomi 捕る /to‘ru/ means “to catch,” and /-doru/ is in 分捕る (“to plunder; loot” /bundo’ru/) and 生け捕る (“to capture alive” /ikedo’ru/). The on-yomi /ho/ is in 捕鯨 (“whaling” /hogee/), 捕獲枠 (“fishing or hunting quota” /hokaku’waku/) and 逮捕する (“to arrest; apprehend” /ta’iho-suru/).

  1. The kanji 浦 “creek; inlet; bay; seashore”

History of Kanji 浦The seal style writing of the kanji 浦 comprised “water” (氵) and 甫 “to spread” used phonetically for /ho/, together signifying “a wide area along water.” The kanji 浦 means “creek; inlet; bay; seashore.” [The composition of the kanji 浦: 氵 and 甫]

The kun-yomi 浦 /ura/ is in 津々浦々 (“from coast to coast; all over the country” /tsu’tsu ura’ura/). The on-yomi /ho/ is used in rarely used words.

  1. The kanji 舗 “shop”

History of Kanji 舗For the kanji 舗 the seal writing comprised 金 “metal” and 甫 used phonetically for /ho/, together signifying “a metal piece that was used on a door lock or handle.” Later it meant “shop,” and 金changed to 舍 “house.” The kyuji 舖, in blue,  The component 舍changed to 舎 in the shinji, as was the case with other kanji that contained it. The kanji 舗 means “shop.” [The composition of the kanji 舗: 舎 and 甫]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ho/ is in 舗装道路 (“paved street” /hosoodo’oro/), and /-po/ is in 店舗 (“shop” /te’npo/). It is also used for the Japanese word /shinise/ 老舗 “a long-established store.”

  1. The kanji 哺 “to take in one’s mouth”

History of Kanji 哺The seal style writing of the kanji comprised 口 “mouth,” and 甫 used phonetically for /ho/ to mean “to catch,” together meaning a parent bird giving food to its chick’s mouth” and “to chew in the mouth.” The kanji 哺 means “to take in one’s mouth.” [The composition of the kanji 哺: 口 and 甫]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ho/ is in 哺乳類 (“Mammalia” /honyu’urui/) and 哺乳瓶 (“a baby’s nursing bottle” /honyu’ubin/).

History of Kanji 尃By adding a hand below 甫, the shape 尃 in the kyuji style, signified “a hand planting seedlings” or “nursery.” It meant “to spread” and further “wide.” The kanji are 博敷薄簿縛.

  1. The kanji 博 “spreading; wide; broad”

History of Kanji 博For the kanji 博 the bronze ware style writings comprised 尃 “young plant with its roots protected by a hand” used phonetically for /hu; haku/ and 十 “gathering many things into one,” together signifying “planting young seedlings in a wide area” or more generally “spreading; wide.” Later the kanji 博 came to mean “breadth of knowledge.” The right side of the seal style writing still retained the image of the original meaning. The kanji 博 means “spreading; wide.” [The composition of the kanji 博: 十 and 一,曰,丨, a dot and 寸]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /haku/ is in 博覧会 (“exhibition exposition” /hakura’nkai/), 博学 (“extensive learning; encyclopedic knowledge” /hakugaku/), 博士号 (“doctorate” /hakushi’goo/), 博士 (“expert, an expert” /ha’kase/). /-Baku/ is in 賭博 (“gambling” /tobaku/). /-Paku/ is in 万博 ( “a world fair” /banpaku/).

  1. The kanji 敷 “to spread out; stretch”

History of Kanji 敷For the kanji 敷 the bronze ware style writing was “a young seedling (甫) with its roots protected” that was held by “a hand” (寸), and was used phonetically for /hu/. In seal style “a hand holding a stick” (攴, a bushu bokunyuu) was added to signify “an action.” Together they signified “to plant a seedling in the ground and level the ground” or “to lay spread.” In kanji the bottom left became 方 “four directions.” The kanji 敷 means “to spread out; stretch.” [The composition of the kanji 敷: 一, 曰, 丨, a dot, 方 and 攵]

The kun-yomi 敷く /shiku/ means “to spread; pave; lay out,” and also is in 風呂敷 (“a wrapping cloth” /huro’shiki/), 屋敷 (“residential site; the premises” /yashiki’/), 座敷 (“Japanese-style tatami room; drawing room” /zashiki’/), 敷き布団 (“sleeping mat” /shikibu’ton/) and 敷居 (“threshold; sill of an entrance” /shikii/). The on-yomi /hu/ is in 敷設する (“to construct; build” /husetsu-suru/).

  1. The kanji 薄 “thin; weak; watery”

History of Kanji 薄The seal style of the kanji 薄 comprised“plants” (艸), “water” (氵) and  “wide; to spread flat” used phonetically for /haku/. Water or plants spread in a wide area made it thin. The kanji 薄 meant “thin; weak; watery.” [The composition of the kanji 薄: 艹, 氵and the right side of 博]

The kun-yomi 薄い /usui/ means “thin; weak; watery; pale,” and is in 薄める (“to dilute; weaken” /usumeru/), 手薄な (“thinly staffed” /teusu-na/) and 薄暗い (“gloomy; dusky; dim” /usugurai/). The on-yomi /haku/ is in 軽薄な (“indiscreet; frivolous” /keehaku-na/) and 薄情な (“heartless; coldhearted” /hakujoo-na/).

  1. The kanji 簿 “register; bookkeeping record”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 簿. The kanji had 竹, a bushu takekammuri “bamboo,” and the same bottom as 薄 “thin” used phonetically for /bo/. Thin wood or bamboo pieces were used for bookkeeping and were bound together. The kanji 簿 means “register; bookkeeping record.” [The composition of the kanji 簿: 竹かんむり, 氵 and the right side of 博]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /bo/ is in 名簿 (“roll; name list” /meebo/), 帳簿 (“an account book; ledger” /choobo/), 簿記 (“register” /bo’ki/), 戸籍簿 (“a record of koseki – official family register”/koseki’bo/) and 家計簿 (“a housekeeping accounts book” /kake’ebo/).

  1. The kanji 縛 “to restrain; bind”

History of Kanji 縛The seal style writing of the kanji 縛 comprised 糸 “skein of threads” and “a young seedling held in a hand” used phonetically for /baku/. Something constrained in one’s hand and bound in threads gave the meaning “to bind.” The kanji 縛 means “to restrain; bind.” [The composition of the kanji 縛: 糸 and the right side of 博]

The kun-yomi 縛る /shiba’ru/ means “to bind.” The on-yomi /baku/ is in 束縛 (“restraint; shackles” /sokubaku/) and 呪縛 (“spell” /jubaku/).

In our four posts we explored kanji that appeared to share the same original shape (Please refer to the comparison of 東重童専甫 table on our last post). The first two posts were related to stuff that was wrapped around and tied at the two openings and in the middle, signifying “stuff; weight.” The third post was about a spindle being turned by a hand, signifying “to rotate; roll.” And this post was about a seedling whose roots were wrapped for protection, signifying “to protect,” and a hand added to it, signifying “to spread; broad.” On the table we see that the original shapes of all four shapes existed in oracle bone style, the oldest style (all in brown in our color). We also see how creators differentiated meanings using simple shapes available. They would have been astonished to know how complex their simple shapes had become. In the next post we move onto the topic of things that were bundled. Thank you very much for your reading. — Noriko [May 5, 2018]

The Kanji 声南琴喜樹膨鼓-musical instrument

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As the last article of the group of kanji that originated from “a thing; stuff,” we are going to look at kanji that originated from musical instruments – 声南琴喜樹膨鼓.

  1. The kanji 声 “voice; fame; reputation; sound”

History of Kanji 声For the kanji 声 (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, was “a musical instrument with a hanging rope” and “an ear” below that. (b) and (c) in seal style, in red, had “a hand holding a stick to bang the hanging sound” board added. Together they meant “one listening to the sound of a hanging musical instrument that was banged by hand.” The kyuji 聲 in (d), in blue, contained all the components — “a banging instrument,” “a hand hitting with a tool” and “an ear to listen to.” But in the shinji 声only the top left was kept. Even though the origin was from an musical instrument and a person’s ear, it meant human “voice.” The kanji 声means “voice; fame; reputation; sound.”

The kun-yomi 声 /ko’e/ means “voice.” 鶴の一声 (“authoritative pronouncement; voice of authority” /tsu’ru-no hito’koe/). /-Goe/ is in 大声 (“loud voice” /oogo’e/). Another kun-yomi /kowa-/ is in 声音 (“tone of voice” /kowa’ne/). The on-yomi /see/ is in 無声音 (“voiceless sound” /muse’eon/), 音声 (“voice; sound” /o’nsee/), 銃声 (“sound of gunfire” /juusee/, 声援を送る (“to cheer” /seen-o okuru/) and 名声 (“fame” /meesee/). Another on-yomi /shoo/ is a go-on in 大音声 (”an ear-splitting voice” /daio’njoo/).

  1. The kanji 南 “south”

History of Kanji 南For the kanji 南 in oracle bone, bronze ware style, in green, and seal style  it was a musical instrument called /nan/, which was hung with ropes at the top. The shape was similar to a hanging bell. The writing was borrowed to mean “south.” Some scholars suggested that the sound nanwas similar to dan 暖 “warm,” and it may have something to do with this choice. The kanji 南means “south.”

The kun-yomi 南 /minami/ means “south” and is in 南側 (“south side” /minamigawa/). The on-yomi /nan/ is in 南北 (“the south and north” /na’nboku/), 南極 (“Antarctica: South Pole” /nankyoku/) and 中南米 (“Latin America; Central and South America” /chuuna’nbee/).

  1. The kanji 琴 “harp”

History of Kanji 琴The seal style writing of the kanji 琴 was “a harp,” with a bowed body and bridges for strings. The kanji 琴 means “harp.”

The kun-yomi /koto/ means “hard.” The on-yomi /kin/ is in 木琴(“marimba; xylopohone” /mokkin/) and 心の琴線に触れる(“to touch one’s heartstrings” /kokoro-no-kinsen-ni hureru/).

  1. The kanji 喜 “to rejoice; happy; be delighted”

History of Kanji 喜For the kanji 喜 the oracle bone style and bronze ware style writings had “a hand drum with a hanging device” at the top and 口 “a box of prayers and benedictions” at the bottom. They meant “pleasing a god with good drumming. The Old style writing, in purple, had a person who was singing or about to eat feast with his mouth wide open added but dropped in seal style. The kanji 喜 means “to rejoice; happy; be delighted.”

The kun-yomi 喜ぶ /yoroko’bu/ means “to rejoice; be delighted” and is in 大喜びする  (“to be overjoyed; be thrilled” /ooyo’rokobi-suru/). The on-yomi /ki/ is in 歓喜(“delight” /ka’nki/), 喜劇 (“comedy” /ki’gki/), 悲喜こもごも(“bittersweet; having mingled feelings of joy and sorrow” /hi’ki-komo’gomo/), 喜怒哀楽 (“feelings” /ki’do airaku/) and 一喜一憂 (“glad and sad by turns” /i’kki ichiyuu/).

  1. The kanji 樹 “tree; to plant a tree; establish”

History of Kanji 樹For the kanji 樹 the bronze ware style writing, (a), comprised 壴 “a drum” and 寸 “hand” used phonetically for /chu; ju/ to mean “a tree; arbor.” (c) in seal style reflected (a), but in (b) 木 “tree” was added. “A hand holding a tree straight up” gave the meaning “to plant a tree” and “to establish” in a general sense. The kanji 樹 means “tree; to plant a tree; establish.”

The kun-yomi /ki/ means “tree.” The on-yomi /ju/ is in 樹立する (“to establish” /juristsu-suru/), 果樹園 (“orchard” /kaju’en/) and 広葉樹 (“broad leaf tree” /kooyo’oju/).

  1. The kanji 膨 “to swell out; expand; get big”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 膨. The kanji comprised 月 “a part of one’s body” on the left side and 壴 “a hanging drum” and 彡 “something pretty” together used phonetically for booto mean “sound of a hand drum reverberating” or something spreading like the sound. A part of the body that tended to expand was a stomach. The meaning of a part of body dropped it meant “to expand.” The kanji 膨means “to swell out; expand; get big.”

The kun-yomi 膨らむ /hukuramu/ means “to swell out; expand,” and is in 着膨れる(“to be thickly clad” /kibukure’ru/). The on-yomi /boo/ is in 膨張する(to expand; swell” /boochoo-suru/) and 膨大な (“enormous; colossal” /boodai-na/).

  1. The kanji 鼓 “a hand drum; to hit a drum; drum up”

History of Kanji 鼓For the kanji 鼓(a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style and (e) in seal style comprised “a drum with a hanging rope at the top” and “a hand hitting the drum with a drumstick.” Together they meant “a hand drum.” A hand hitting a drum gave the meaning “rhythemic; to stir up.” The kanji 鼓 means “a hand drum; to hit a drum; drum up.”

The kun-yomi /tuzumi/ (つづみ) means “hand drum” and is in 小鼓 (“hand-held drum” /kotuzumi/). The on-yomi /ko/ is in 太鼓 (“drum” /taiko/), 鼓舞する(“to encourage; inspire” /ko’bu-suru/), 鼓動 (“to beat; pulsate” /kodoo-suru/) and 鼓笛隊 (“fife and drum band” /kotekitai/).

The next group of kanji we explore is a tied bag or things in a bundle. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 31, 2018]

The Kanji 典冊柵・偏編遍・論輪倫 – “bound writing tablets”

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In this post we are going to look at nine kanji in three subgroups –典冊柵 (with 冊)・偏編遍 (with 扁)・論輪倫 (with 侖). They share the origin of writing tablets bound together that made a book and could be rolled up for storage.

  1. The kanji 典 “code; law; model”

History of Kanji 典For the kanji 典 in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, the top was writing tablets of the same length linked together with leather straps. (a) had two hands holding it very carefully while (b) had a hand turning the book to read. What the two lines at the bottom in (a) signified is not clear, but they might have indicated a table. (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green, had a low table (几). The important bound writing tablets were a model or code from precedents that one looked up, and the writing meant “code; law; model.” In (e) in Old style, in purple, “bamboo” pertaining to “writing” was added at the top, but it was dropped in (f) in seal style, in red. In kanji the top was coalesced to the top of a low table. The kanji 典 means “code, law; model.”

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /ten/ is in 辞典 (“dictionary” /jiten/), 典雅な (“refined; elegant” /te’nga-na/), 出典 (“source of reference” /shutten/), 古典 (“classics” /koten/) and

典型的な (“stereotyped; typical” /tenkeeteki-na/). /-Den/ is in 香典 (“offering in Buddhism funeral” /kooden/; 典 substitutes for a non-Joyo kanji).

  1. The kanji 冊 “bound book; a counter for books”

History of Kanji 冊The history of the kanji 冊 has two different interpretations. One is that it was writing tablets linked together as a book. (d) in Old style, in purple, had “bamboo” at the top but lost it in (e) in seal style. This development is very similar to the kanji 典, without a table to place on. It meant “a counter of bound books.” Another view takes notice on the different length of the vertical lines in the ancient writings. Shirakawa says that a writing tablet had a set length and that wooden stakes of different length linked in a circle signified “a corral to keep live stocks to be used for sacrificial offering.” It was /saku/ phonetically. Because of the similar appearance between stakes pounded to the ground to keep live animals and writing tablets linked together, the writing mistakenly came to be used to mean “a bound book.” The kyuji 册, (f) in blue, was simplified to 冊. The kanji 冊 is used as a counter for books.

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /satsu/ is in 三冊 (“three books” /sa’nsatsu/), 冊数 (“number of volume” /satsusu’u/), 別冊 (“separate volume; extra issue” /bessatsu/) and 小冊子 (“booklet” /shoosa’sshi/). Another on-yomi /-zaku/ is in 短冊 (“strip of paper” /tanzaku/).

  1. The kanji 柵 “fence; wooden stockade”

History of Kanji 柵The seal style writing of the kanji 柵 comprised 木 “tree; wood” and 冊 “linked wooden stakes” used phonetically for /saku/. Because the writing 冊 changed to mean “a bound book,” the new writing was created for the original meaning of “wooden uneven length stakes to keep animals.” The kanji 柵 means “fence; wooden stockade.”  <Composition of the kanji 柵: 木 and 冊>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 柵 /saku/ means “fence” and is in 鉄柵 (“iron fence” /tessaku/)

扁: In the next three kanji 偏編遍, what is common is 扁. One view of the origin is “a screen; mesh” in a part of a single swing door (扁); another view is that it was a bound book.

  1. The kanji 偏 “to become lopsided”

History of Kanji 偏The seal style writing of the kanji 偏  comprised イ “an act one does” and 扁 “a screen door” used phonetically for /hen/ to mean “one side (of the two),” together signifying “to lean to one side.” The kanji 偏 means “to get lopsided; one side; bias.” <Composition of the kanji 偏: イ, 戸 and 冊 without the horizontal line going through >

The kun-yomi 偏る /katayo’ru/ means “to become lopsided; become biased.” The on-yomi /hen/ is in 偏と旁 (left side component and right side component in kanji), 偏食 (“deviated food habit; unbalanced diet” /henshoku/) and 偏向 (“inclination; leaning; bias” /henkoo/).

  1. The kanji 編 “to compile; edit; knit; braid”

History of Kanji 編The seal style writing of the kanji 編 comprised 糸 “a skein of thread” and 扁 for /hen/ phonetically. 扁 comprised 戸 “door; family” and 冊 “bamboo or wooden tablets tied together for record keeping,” signifying “family registry record; to compile documents; edit.” Together they also meant “to knit (yarn); braid.” The kanji 編 means “to compile; edit; knit.” <Composition of the kanji 編: 糸 and 扁>

The kun-yomi /a’mu/ means “to knit” and is in 編み物 (“knitting” /ami’mono/), 三つ編み (“braid” /mitsuami/), 編み出す (“to invent; forge; contrive” /amida’su/). The on-yomi /hen/ is in 編集 (“editing” /henshuu/), 再編成 (“reorganization; reshuffle” /saihe’nsee/) and 長編小説 (“long novel” /choohen sho’osetsu/).

  1. The kanji 遍 “to go around; universal; time”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 遍. The kanji 遍 comprises 辶, a bushu shinnyoo “to move forward” and 扁 used phonetically for /hen/, together signifying “to go around,” and further “everywhere; widely; extensively; far and wide.” “Making a round in a circuit” also gave the meaning “once; time.” The kanji 遍 means “to go around; far and wide; time.” <Composition of the kanji 遍: 扁 and 辶>

The kun-yomi 遍く/amane’ku/ means “everyplace; all over; extensively.” The on-yomi /hen/ is 普遍的 (worldwide; universal; general” /huhenteki/). /-Pen/ is in 一遍 (“once; one time” /ippen/) and 一遍に (“in one sitting; all at one” /ippe’n-ni/). /-Ben/ is in 何遍も (“several times; repeatedly” /na’nben-mo/).

History of Kanji 侖The third shape 侖 has the history shown on the right. (a), (b) and (c) had writing tablets that were linked with straps as a book rolled up for storage under a roof. From “bound writing tablets rolled up” 侖 signified “things in good order in a circular shape.”

  1. The kanji 論 “logic; argument”

History of Kanji 論For the kanji 論 the bronze ware style writing was things in good order bound together in a circular shape (侖). The seal style writing comprised “word; language; to say” was added. Words that were arranged in good order meant “logic; argument.” The kanji 論 means “logic; argument.”  <Composition of the kanji 論: 言 and 侖>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ron/ is in 論じる (“to discuss” /ronjiru/), 議論 (“argument” /gi’ron/), 論争 (“dispute; controversy” /ronsoo/), 論文 (“article; dissertation; thesis” /ronbun/), 異論を唱える (“to object to” /iron-o tonae’ru/) and 世論 (“public opinion” /yo’ron/).

  1. The kanji 輪 “wheel; circle; loop”

History of Kanji 輪The seal style writing of the kanji 輪 comprised 車 “a wheel” and 侖 used phonetically for /rin/ to mean “many arrows arranged in a circular shape.” Together they meant “wheel; circle; loop.” <Composition of the kanji 輪: 車 and 侖>

The kun-yomi 輪 /wa/ means “a ring,” and is in 輪ゴム (“elastic band” /wagomu/) and 内輪話 (“inside information; private talk” /uchiwaba’nashi/). The on-yomi /rin/ is in 車輪 (“wheel” /sharin/), 三輪車 (“tricycle” /sanri’nsha/), 両輪 (“two wheels; both wheels” /ryoorin/) and 輪郭 (“contour; outline; profile” /rinkaku/).

  1. The kanji 倫 “ethics; principle”

History of Kanji 倫The seal style writing of the kanji 倫 had a “person; an act that one does” and 侖 used phoentically for /rin/ to mean “things ordered in good order.” Together “what a person should observe” means “ethics; principle.” The kanji 倫 means “ethics; principle.” <Composition of the kanji 倫: イ and 侖>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /rin/ is in 倫理 (“morality; ethics” /ri’nri/) and 人倫 (“human relations; morality” /jinrin/).

Even though the three shapes 冊, 扁 and 侖 have different meanings, they share the underlying meaning “writing tablets or stakes linked together in an orderly manner and it can be rolled up.” I believe that we still need to have another post on the topics of objects next week. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 24, 2018]

The Kanji 主注柱住筆律書粛津- “lamp” and “brush”

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As one of the last categories of the origins of kanji we have been looking at things  around the living area. In this post we are going to look at the kanji that originated from “a burning lamp” (主) – 主注柱住 and “a writing brush” (聿) – 筆律書粛津.

  1. The kanji 主 “master; main; primary”

History of Kanji 主For the kanji 主 the oracle bone style writing, in brown, was “a flame” on top of 木 “wood,” signifying “a torch” (used outside). The bronze ware writing, in green, was “a flame” alone. In seal style, in red, it became “a burning oil wick on a long-stem oil lamp holder” inside a house. A fire was important and symbolized “the master of a house.” The kanji 主 means “master; main; primary.” [the composition of the kanji 主: 丶 and 王]

There are three different kun-yomi: 主 /a’ruji/ means “master; proprietor”; a second kun-yomi 主な /o’mo-na/ means “major; primary”; and a third kun-yomi /nu’shi/ is in 家主 (“landlord; owner of a house” /ya’nushi/), 飼い主 (“owner of a pet” /ka’inushi/) and 雇用主 (“employer” /koyo’onushu/). The on-yomi /shu/ is in 主人公 (“main character” /shuji’nkoo/), 主義 (“principle; ideology” /shu’gi/), 主観的な (“subjective” /shukanteki-na/), 主体的な (“independent; active” /shutaiteki-na/) and 主客転倒 (“mistaking the means for the end; putting the cart before the horse” /shu’kakutentoo). Another kun-yomi /zu/ comes from a go-on reading and is in 丸坊主 (“shaven head’ bald” /marubo’ozu/).

  1. The kanji 注 “to pour; pay (attention)”

History of Kanji 注For the kanji 注 the seal style writing comprised “water; liquid” and 主 used phonetically for /chuu/ to mean “staying in one place.” Together they meant “a manner in which one poured lamp oil very carefully.” The kanji 注 meant “to pour; pay (attention).” [the composition of the kanji 注: 氵and 主]

The kun-yomi 注ぐ /sosogu/ means “to pour.” The on-yomi /chuu/ is in 注意する “careful; to watch out; to give warning” /chu’ui/), 注目 (“attention; recognition” /chuumoku/), 注文 (“order” /chuumon/) and 外注(“outsoursing” /gaichuu/).

  1. The kanji 柱 “pillar; column; support”

History of Kanji 柱The seal style of the kanji 柱 comprised 木 “tree; wood” and 主 used phonetically for /chuu/ to mean “something that does not move; main.” Together “wood that stayed in one place supporting the rest of a house” was “column.” The kanji 柱 means “pillar; column; support.” [the composition of the kanji 柱: 木 and 主]

The kun-yomi 柱 /hashira’/ means “column.” /-Bashira/ is in 大黒柱 (“the central pillar of a house; breadwinner” /daikokuba’shira/). The on-yomi /chuu/ is in 電柱 (“utility pole” /denchuu/).

  1. The kanji 住 “to live; reside”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 住. The kanji 住 comprised イ, a bushu ninben “person; an act that one does,” and 主 used phonetically for /juu/ to mean “to stay in one place” like a lamp would. A place in which one stayed for a long time meant “to live; reside.” The kanji 住 means “to live; reside.” [the composition of the kanji 住: イand 主]

The kun-yomi 住む /su-mu/ means “to live,” and is in 住み込み (“a live-in” /sumikomi/). Another word to mean “to reside” is 住まう /suma’u/ and is in 住まい (“house; residence” /su’mai/). The on-yomi /juu/ is in 住所 (“address” /ju’usho/), 住民 (“resident” /juumin/), 住居 (“housing” /ju’ukyo/), 住宅地 (“residential area” /juuta’kuchi/) and 定住 (“long-term residency” /teejuu/).

The next five kanji contain 聿 “a writing brush” -筆律書粛津

  1. The kanji 筆 “a writing brush”

History of Kanji 筆For the kanji 筆 (a), (b) and (c) had “a writing brush held by a hand.” It meant “a writing brush.” In (d) “bamboo” (竹) was added at the top to mean the brush itself, differentiating from act of writing. A writing brush usually had a bamboo handle. The kanji 筆 means “a writing brush.” [the composition of the kanji 筆: 竹かんむり and 聿]

The kun-yomi /hude/ means “writing brush” and is in 筆使い (“one’s handling of a brush; touch; technique” /udezu’kai/), 絵筆 (“paintbrush; an artist’s brush” /e’hude/), 筆まめな (“facile with the pen” /hudemame-na/), 筆が立つ (“good writer” /hude-ga-ta’tsu/). The on-yomi /hitsu/ means 筆記用具 (“writing materials” /hikkiyo‘ogu/) and 万年筆 (“fountain pen” /manne’nhitsu/). /-Pitsu/ is in 鉛筆 (“pencil” /enpitsu/), 達筆な (“skillful penmanship” /tappitsu-na/) and 執筆者 (‘the author; the writer” /shippitsu’sha)

  1. The kanji 律 “law; rules that one follows”

History of Kanji 律For the kanji 律 the oracle bone writing comprised “a crossroad” signifying “a way to go or to conduct oneself” and “a hand holding a writing brush straight up.” Together they meant “to conduct oneself in an upright manner as prescribed in a rule.” The kanji 律 means “law; rules that one follows.” [the composition of the kanji 律: 彳 and聿]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ritsu/ is in法律 (“law” /hooritsu/), 律する (“to measure; govern” /rissuru/), 戒律 (“religious percept” /kairitsu/) 一律に (“uniformly; across the board” /ichiritsu-ni/), 不文律 (“unwritten rule” /hubu’nritsu/) and 規律正しい (“disciplined; well-ordered” /kiritsutada’shii/). Another on-yomi /richi/ is a go-on reading and is in 律儀な (“upright; conscientious” /ri’chigi-na/).

  1. The kanji 書 “to write; writing; documents”

History of Kanji 書For the kanji 書in the bronze ware style and seal style writings the top was “a hand holding a writing brush upright” (聿). The bottom (者) was used phonetically for /sha/ to mean “to copy.” The kanji 書 means “to write; writing; scripture.” [the composition of the kanji 書: 聿 except the middle vertical line does not go through and 日]

The kun-yomi 書く /ka-ku/ means “to write” and is in 書留 (“registered mail” /kakitome/).  -/Ga/ is in 下書き (“draft” /shitagaki/), 横書き (“horizontal writing” /yokogaki/), 上書き (“overwriting” /uwagaki/) and 肩書き (“title of one’s position” /katagaki/). The on-yomi /sho/ is in 書類 (“documents” /shorui/) and 文書で (“in writing; on paper” /bu’nsho-de/), 聖書 (“the Bible” /se’esho/), 書記 (“secretary” /shoki/) and 白書 (“White paper –comprehensive report by the government” /ha’kusho/).

  1. The kanji 粛 “solemn; quiet; prudent”

History of Kanji 粛For the kanji 粛 (a) in oracle bone style had “a writing brush” and “a pair of compasses for drawing a circle.” Together they meant “drawing a picture on bronze ware.” In (b) and (c) in bronze ware style the brush was not present. (d) in Old style, in purple, comprised “a writing brush,” “a heart” and something else (possibly 勺 for phonetic use of /shaku/). Adding a picture to a bronze ware was serious work. From that the kanji 粛 meant “solemn; gravely harsh.” The kyuji, in blue, (f), reflected (e) in seal style. In kanji the bottom was replaced by 米, but had no relevance to the meaning “rice.” The kanji 粛 means “solemn; quiet; prudent.” [the composition of the kanji 粛: hard to describe]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shuku/ is in 静粛に (“silently; in an orderly manner”  /seeshuku-ni/), 自粛 (“voluntary restraint” /jishuku/) and 粛清 (“purge; cleanup” /shukusee/).

  1. The kanji 津 “shoal; landing”

History of Kanji 津For the kanji 津 the bronze ware style and Old style comprised “water” “a bird” and “a boat.” A bird alighting on a boat in water signified “a boat landing area.” In seal style the right side became a writing brush dripping ink or liquid droplets on the lower left side signifying an area with little water, and it was used phonetically for /shin/. The kanji 津 means “shoal; landing.” [the composition of the kanji 津: 氵and聿]

The kun-yomi /tsu/ is in 津波 (“tidal wave; tsunami” /tsunami/). The on-yomi /shin/ is in 興味津々 (“of absorbing interest; having a keen interest” /kyo’omi shinshin/).

In the next post we are going to look at kanji including those that originated from musical instruments.  Thank you very much for your reading.  -Noriko [March 17, 2018]

The Kanji 凡帆汎同洞胴銅 – Co­ntainer (6)

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History of Kanji - A vessel; tube-shapeThis is the second post on kanji that originated from a container. The word “container” in our exploration means an object in a broad sense that holds something, including ones for the purpose of transporting. The ancient writing shapes shown on the right were interpreted in four different meanings in this blog, the two of which (a) and (b) were discussed in the last post, and we are going to explore (c) and (d) in this post:

(a) “a boat” to transport on the water in the kanji 舟船舷舶 and as (b) “a shallow bowl; shallow vessel; tray” to transport by hand in the kanji 般搬盤服. In the next post we explore examples used as (c) “a sail” to transport things on the water in the kanji 凡帆汎 and as (d) “a tube-like shape; cylindrical” in the kanji 同洞胴銅.

(c) as “a sail” to transport things on the water 凡

  1. The kanji 凡 “all; common; ordinary; spreading”

History of Kanji 凡In the interpretation of 凡 (c) above, the two vertical lines (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green were “masts,” and the short horizontal lines were the outline of “a sail.” A sail caught wind. A sail is large, and covering a large area meant “all; nearly all; approximation.” In (e) in seal style, in red, the short line in the middle signified that inside was not hollow or empty. “All” means nothing special, thus “ordinary.” The kanji 凡 means “all; common; ordinary; spreading.”  [Composition of the kanji 凡: 几and ヽ]

The kun-yomi 凡そ (“approximately” /oyoso/) and 大凡 (“approximately; more or less” /ooyoso/). The on-yomi /bon/ is in 平凡 (“ordinary; common” /heebon/), 凡人 (“ordinary person” /bonjin/). Another on-yomi /han/ is in 凡例 (“legend: /hanree/).

  1. The kanji 帆 “sail”

There is no ancient writing. For the original meaning of “sail of a boat,” a new kanji 帆 was created by adding a piece of cloth 巾 on the left. The kanji 帆 means “sail.” [Composition of the kanji 帆: 巾 and 凡]

The kun-yomi /ho/ means “sail” and is in 帆立貝 (“scallop” from the shape /hotate’gai/). The on-yomi /pan/ is in 出帆する (“to sail from” /shuppan-suru/).

  1. The kanji 汎 “all; covering all; far and wide; pan-”

History of Kanji 汎The seal style writing had “water” and 凡, which was used phonetically for /han/ to mean “sail; large piece of cloth; to spread.” Together they meant “to float on the water.” Water spreading would cause a flood in a wide area. The kanji 汎 means “all; covering all; far and wide; pan-.” [Composition of the kanji 汎: 氵 and 凡]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is 汎用する (“to use frequently” /han-yoo-suru/), 汎用性のある (“versatile; widely useable” /han-yoosee-no-a’ru/) and (汎アメリカ主義 (“Pan-Americanism” /ha’n amerika-shu’gi/).

(d) 同 “a tube-like shape; cylindrical”

  1. The kanji 同 “same; identical”

History of Kanji 同The origin is not clear. One view is that the top of 1 and 2 in oracle bone style and 3 and 4 in bronze ware style was same as 凡, and in some instances as 舟. The bottom was 口 “mouth; to speak.” A tube-like shape signified that the opening from the front through the back was “the same.” The sides of the top shape were lengthened in (e) in seal style, which reflected in the kanji 同. The kanji 同 means “same; identical.” [Composition of the kanji 同: 冂, 一 and 口]

The kun-yomi 同じ /ona-ji/ or /onna-ji/ means “the same.” The on-yomi /doo/ is in 同一の “same; identical” /dooitsu-no/], 共同 (“cooporation; collaboration” /kyoodoo/), 同感する (“to agree with” /dookan-suru/), 同情する (“to sympathize” /doojoo-suru/) and 異同 (“discrepancy; distinction” /idoo/).

  1. The kanji 筒 “tube-like shape; cylindrical”

History of Kanji 筒The seal style writing had 竹 “bamboo” and 同, which was used phonetically for /doo; too/ to mean “tube-like shape,” a shape having straight parallel sides. Together they meant tube-like shape such as a bamboo. The kanji 筒 means “tube-like shape; cylindrical.” [Composition of the kanji  筒: 竹かんむり and 同]

The kun-yomi 筒 /tsutsu/ means “cylindrical object; tube,” and is in 筒抜け (“leaking out” /tsutsunuke/) and 茶筒 (“tea canister” /chazutu/). The on-yomi /too/ is in 封筒 (“envelop” /huutoo/) and 水筒 (“canteen; water bottle” /suitoo/).

  1. The kanji 洞 “cave; to penetrate”

History of Kanji 洞The seal style writing comprised “water” and 同, which was used phonetically to mean “a shape that was hollow.” Together they mean an area where water gushed through and made a shape that went through, such as cave. The kanji 洞 means “cave; to penetrate.” [Composition of the kanji 洞: 氵 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /doo/ is in 洞窟 (“cave” /dookutsu/) and 空洞化 (“to become hollow; hollow out” /kuudooka-suru/).

  1. The kanji 胴 “torso; trunk”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 胴 comprised 月, a bushu nikuzuki “a part of the body,” and 同, which was used phonetically for /doo/ to mean a tube-like shape. A part of a body that had a tube-like shape was “torso; trunk.” The kanji 胴 means “torso; trunk.” [Composition of the kanji  胴: 月 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi in the Joyo kanji. The on-yomi 胴 /do’o/ means “torso; trunk; waist,” and is in 胴体 (“trunk of the body; torso” /do’otai/).

  1. The kanji 銅 “copper”

History of Kanji 銅The bronze ware style and seal style writings comprised 金 “metal” and 同, which was used phonetically for /do’o/ to mean “red.” Together “red metal” (赤金) meant “copper.” The kanji 銅 means “copper.” [Composition of the kanji 銅: 金 and 同]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /do’o/ means “copper” and is in 青銅器 (“bronze artifacts” /seedo’oki/), 銅像 (“bronze statue” /doozoo/), 銅山 (“copper mine” /do’ozan/) and 赤銅色 (“brown; reddish brown” /shakudooiro/).

In the next post we move to other objects around a house. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 10, 2018]

The Kanji 舟船舷舶般搬盤服 – Container (5)

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History of Kanji - A vessel; tube-shapeIn this and next posts we explore kanji whose shapes appear totally unrelated and yet if we look at their ancient writings they did share the same shape, or at least closely related. The shapes shown on the right side were taken from the various kanji. They meant “a vessel; a boat; bowl; cylindrical shape.” I find it very interesting to know that the English word “vessel” also means (1) a ship or a large boat, (2) a hollow container especially one used to hold liquid, such as bowl or cask and (3) by extension, a duct or canal holding or conveying blood or other fluid.

In this post we are going to look at kanji that came from these shapes as (a) “a boat” to transport on the water in the kanji 舟船舷舶 and as (b) “a shallow bowl; shallow vessel; tray” to transport by hand in the kanji 般搬盤服. In the next post we explore examples used as (c) “a sail” to transport things on the water in the kanji 凡帆汎 and as (d) “a tube-like shape; cylindrical” in the kanji 同洞胴銅. Let us begin.

(a) as “a boat” to transport on the water

  1. The kanji 舟 “boat”

History of Kanji 舟For the kanji 舟 in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green, it was the shape of “a boat.” A simple boat such as a canoe was made by hollowing out a log. A boat could also be made with panels of wooden board. (e) in seal style, in red, became the kanji 舟. The kanji 舟 means “boat.”

The kun-yomi /hu’ne/ means “boat.” /-Bune/ is in 小舟 (“small boat” /kobune/), 丸木舟 (“dugout canoe” /marukibu’ne/) and 渡し舟 (“ferry” /watashibu’ne/). The on-yomi /shuu/ is rarely used other than in a name.

  1. The kanji 船 “ship; vessel”

History of Kanji 船For the kanji 船the bronze ware style and seal style writings had “a boat” on the left side. The right side 㕣 was used phonetically for /en/ to mean “along.” A vessel that travelled along the flow of water meant “ship.” The kanji 船 means “ship.”  [Composition of the kanji 船: 舟 and 㕣]

The kun-yomi /hu’ne/ means “ship; vessel.” /Huna-/ is in 船旅 (“voyage; a sea trip” /hunatabi/), 船酔い (“seasickness” /hunayoi/) and 船乗り (“sailor” /huna’nori/). The on-yomi /sen/ is in 乗船する (“to go aboard; embark” /joosen-suru/), 貨物船 (“cargo boat; freight” /kamotsusen/), 客船 (“passenger ship” /kyakusen/), 宇宙船 (“spacecraft” /uchuusen/), 連絡船 (“ferry boat” /renrakusen/) and 船頭 (“boatman” /sendo’o/).

  1. The kanji 舷 “side of a ship; the gunwale”

History of Kanji 舷The Qin-Han era seal sample, in blue, comprised 舟 “boat” and 玄 “thin things like threads” used phonetically for /gen/. Together they meant “the sides of a boat.” The kanji 舷 means “side of a boat; the gunwale; the railing of a boad,” a very specialized kanji in my view.  [Composition of the kanji 舷: 舟 and 玄]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /gen/ is in 右舷 (“starboard” /ugen/) and 左舷 (“port side” /sagen/).

  1. The kanji 舶 “a large ship”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 舶. The kanji 舶 comprises 舟 “boat” and 白 used phoneticallly for /haku/ to mean “large” (some views that it is from 伯).  Together they meant “a large ship that sailed in ocean.” The kanji 舶 means “a large ship.” [Composition of the kanji 舶: 舟 and 白]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /haku/ is in 船舶 (“ship; marine vessel” /se’npaku/) and 舶来品 (“imported goods; foreign article” /hakuraihin/).

(b) as “a shallow vessel; a tray” to transport by hand

  1. The kanji 般 “general”

History of Kanji 般The left side of (a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) in bronze ware style and (d) in Old style, in purple, and (e) in seal style was “a tray.” The right side was “a hand holding a weapon or tool,” which eventually becomes 殳, a bushu hokozukuri/rumata. Together they originally meant “a hand carrying somethings in a shallow bowl,” but the shape was borrowed to mean “general.” A new kanji was created for the original meaning of “to carry” by adding another hand, the kanji 搬, our next kanji. The kanji 般 means “general.” [Composition of the kanji 般: 舟 and 殳]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is in 諸般の (“all sorts of; various”/sho’han-no/) and 般若経 (“the Wisdom Sutras; Prajnaparamita Sutra” /hannyakyoo/).  /-Pan/ is in 一般 (“general” /ippan/), 全般的な (“comprehensive; all-embracing” /zenpanteki-na/), 一般化する (“to become universal; generalize” /ippanka-suru/), 一般人 (“people at large; private citizen” /ippa’njin/) and 一般教養課程 (“general culture course” /ippankyo’oyoo/).

  1. The kanji 搬 “to carry; transport”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 搬 comprises 扌, a bushu tehen, “an act one does using a hand,” and 般 used phonetically for /han/. This kanji was created to assume one of the original meaning that the kanji 般had. The kanji 搬 means “to carry; transport.” [Composition of the kanji 搬: 扌, 舟 and 殳]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /han/ is in 搬入する (“to carry something in” /hannyuu-suru/). /-Pan/ is in 運搬する (“to transport; carry” /unpan-suru/).

  1. The kanji 盤 “a tray; a raised flat bowl”

History of Kanji 盤For the kanji 盤 (a) in oracle bone style had “a hand holding a tool” (殳) and “a tray” (舟) (together 般, originally meant “to carry”) and “a shallow bowl” (皿). In bronze ware style, (b), (c) and (d) had the same three components. Together they meant “a shallow flat bowl one carries something” or “a tray.” (e) in Large seal style, (f) in Old style and (g) in seal style all had 般 at the top. The kanji 盤 means “a tray; a raised flat bowl.” [Composition of the kanji 盤: 舟, 殳and 皿]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ban/ is in 大盤振る舞い (“lavish feast” /ooban-bu’rumai/), 円盤 (“disk” /enban/), 基盤 (“basis; foundation” /kiban/),文字盤 (“clock dial” /mojiban/) and 地盤 (“ground; subsoil” /jiban/). A Japanese abacus also uses this kanji as in 算盤 /soroban/.

The next two kanji 朕 and 服, what we have been looking at as the shape 舟 in kanji appear as 月.

  1. The kanji 朕­ “I (imperial We)”

History of Kanji 朕For the kanji 朕 (a) and (b) in oracle bone style and (c) and (d) in bronze ware style all comprised “a shallow bowl or a tray” (月 or 舟) for transporting things and “two hands holding up an (important) object.” Together they meant “to carry something in a tray and present reverentially with both hands.” It was used by an emperor as a first-person pronoun “imperial We.” In seal style, (e), what was presented became the shape 火 (with no relevance to “fire”). In kanji 朕 the elements on the right side coalesced and became 关. The kanji 朕 means “I (imperial We).” [Composition of the kanji 朕: 月and 关]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 朕 /chin/  means “I (imperial We).”

  1. The kanji 服 “to follow; obey; clothes; brief rest”

History of Kanji 服For the kanji 服 (a) in oracle bone style and (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, the left side had “a flat bowl or vessel.” In the middle and the right side had “a person being pushed by a hand and kneeling down.” Together the knelt-down posture signified “to subject to; yield to.” In Old style, (d), “a hand” disappeared, but in (e) in seal style “a hand” (又) returned. The kanji 服 meant “to follow; obey; obedient.” Clothes are molded to a person’s body, yielding to the body, so it is also used for “clothes.” It also means “to take medicine” or “to have a short rest.” [Composition of the kanji 服: no segment available]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 服 /huku/ means “clothes,” and is in 服装 (“clothes” /hukusoo/), 制服 (“uniform” /seehuku/), 服従する (“to obey” /hukujuu-suru/), 征服 (“conquest” /seehuku/), 服役 (“penal servitude” /hukueki/) and 不服 (“dissatisfaction; disapproval” /huhuku/).  /-Puku/ is in 一服する (“to have a brief rest; have a smoke” /ippuku-suru/).

J0877受HistoryThe kanji 受 and 授–It has been a long time since we looked at the kanji 受and 授. The kanji 受 also had “a vessel that contained a valuable thing” between “a hand form above” and “a hand from below.” Together they signified “a hand giving out something valuable and another hand receiving it,” and originally meant both “to receive” and “to bestow.” Later giving and receiving became differentiated and the kanji 受was used for an action for a receiver. The kanji 受 meant “to receive.”

There is one more post that we need to continue on the kanji that originated from a container next week.  Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [March 3, 2018]

The Kanji 豆豊艶壱富福副幅 – “Container” (3)

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In this post we continue to explore kanji that originated from a container. The kanji are豆豊艶壱 from 豆 “a tall stemmed container” and 富福副幅 from 畐 “a narrow-necked container with a lid which is filled with wealth at the bottom.” ­­

  1. The kanji 豆 “bean; miniature”

History of Kanji 豆For the kanji 豆 in the oracle bone style writing, in brown, the two bronze ware style writings, in green, and the seal style writing, in red, it was “a tall raised or stemmed bowl,” and was /too/ phonetically. Later it was borrowed to mean “bean.” [Composition of the kanji 豆: 一, a side-long 口, a truncated ソ and 一]

The kun-yomi /mame’/ means “bean; miniature,” and is in 豆電球 (“miniature light bulb” /mamede’nkyuu/) and 枝豆 (“boiled salted green beans in pods” /edamame/). The on-yomi /too/ is in 豆腐 (“bean curd” /toohu/) and 納豆 (“fermented soy beans; natto” /natto’o/). Another on-yomi /zu/ is in 大豆(“soy bean” /daizu/). In Japanese it is also used for 小豆 (“azuki bean” for sweets /azuki/).

History of Kanji 頭The kanji “head” has 豆 on the left side too. We have discussed this kanji in the post on November 15, 2014 in connection with the bushu oogai 頁 “head.” 豆 was used phonetically for /too/ and /zu/.

  1. The kanji 豊 “abundance; affluent; plentiful; rich”

History of Kanji 豊For the kanji 豊 on (a) in oracle bone style, (b) in bronze ware style and (c) and (d) in seal style one view is that it was “a tall stemmed bowl with millet stalks,” which signified “abundance of harvest.” It meant “abundance.” Another view is that the top was strands of jewels, rather than mille stalks, and it signified “wealth.” In either view the bottom was a tall stemmed bowl that was used phonetically for /too/. The kyuji 豐, (e) in blue, reflected (d), but in shinji, the top became simplified to 曲. The kanji 豊 means “abundance; affluent; plentiful; rich.”  [Composition of the kanji 豊: 曲 and 豆]

The kun-yomi 豊か /yu’taka/ means “rich; abundance; plentiful” and is in  心豊かな (“fertile mind; spiritually rich” /kokoroyu’taka-na/). The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 豊富な (“abundant; rich; plentiful” /hoohu-na/), 豊作 (“good harvest” /hoosaku/), 豊年 (“year of good harvest” /hoonen/) and 豊満な (“plump” /hooman-na/).

  1. The kanji 艶 “glossy; women’s charm; attractiveness; enchanting”

History of Kanji 艶The seal style writing of the kanji 艶, (a) comprised 豊 “plentiful; abundant” and the right side that signified “a lid (去) over a vessel (皿).” Plentiful food or offerings in a vessel was “desirable,” which further meant “enchanting; attractive” in appearance. (b) 豔 reflected (a). (c) was an informal writing of (b), in which 色 suggested “attractiveness.” The top of (c) still reflected (a). In the shinji 艷 the top became 曲. The kanji 艶 means “glossy; (women’s) enchanting.” [Composition of the kanji 艶: 豊 and 色]

The kun-yomi /tsuya/ means “luster” and is in 艶のある (“shiny; glossy” /tsuya-no-a’ru/) and 色艶のいい (“of good glossy color” /iro’tsuya-no i’i/). Another kun-yomi艶やかな (“glamorous; charming” /ade’yakana/ is not in the Joyo kanji reading. The on-yomi /en/ is 妖艶な (“bewitching” /yooen-na/) and 艶聞 (“rumor of love-affair” /enbun/).

  1. The kanji 壱 “one”

History of Kanji 壱For the kanji 壱 in bronze ware style and seal style it was “a pot or crock that had a secure lid.” A tightly closed pot was filled with fermented air. The bottom of 4 in kyuji, 壹, was 豆, reflecting the original meaning. It was borrowed to mean “one” and is used to avoid misreading the kanji 一 in an important receipt, draft or check. One can easily imagine that it is very easy to add another line or two to 一 to tamper the original number. The kanji 二 and 三 also had a formal writing — the kanji 貮弐 for 二 and 参 for 三. The kanji 壱 means “one; single.”  [Composition of the kanji 壱: 士, 冖 and ヒ]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ichi/ is in 金壱万円 (“10,000 yen” in formal receipt and check  /ki’n ichiman-en/).

  1. The kanji 富 “wealth”

History of Kanji 富For the kanji 富 in bronze ware style the top was “a house” and the inside was “a narrow neck container with a lid whose bottom was swelled in the middle.” A house that had a container that was filled with treasure or things signified “wealth; wealthy; fortune.” Inside of the seal style the container shape became 畐 — a lid, an opening and a full container itself. The kanji 富 means “wealth; fortune.” [Composition of the kanji 富 : 宀, 一, 口 and 田]

The kun-yomi /to’mi/ is “wealth.” The on-yomi /hu/ is in 富豪 (“person of great wealth; millionaire” /hugoo/), 富国 (“national wealth” /hukoku/) and 富裕層 (“the well-off; wealthy class” /huyu’usoo/). /Huu/ is in 富貴 (“wealth and honor” /hu’uki/). /-Pu/ is in 貧富の差 (“disparity of wealth” /hi’npu-no-sa/.)

  1. The kanji 福 “good luck; bliss; blessing; fortune”

History of Kanji 福For the kanji 福 in oracle bone style (a) had “a wine cask filled with a lid with wine that was raised by two hands” and “an altar table with offering” on the top left, while 2 did not have hands. By placing a cask full of stuff on an altar table, one prayed for blessing from a god. It meant “bliss; good luck; happiness.” In (c) and (d) in bronze ware style an altar table with offering began to take the shape 示. In (e) in seal style a full container with a lid became 畐, which is reflected in the kyuji 福, (f). In shinji 福, the left side became ネ, a bushu shimesuhen “religious matter.” The kanji 福 means “good luck; bliss; blessing; fortune.”   [Composition of the kanji 福: ネ and 畐]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /huku/ means “good luck; blessing,” and is in 幸福な (“happy; blissful” /koohuku-n/), 祝福 (“blessing” /shukuhuku/), 福々しい (“plump and happy looking” /hukubukushi’i/), 福祉 (“welfare; well-being” /huku’shi/), ルカによる福音書 (“the Gospel according to Luke” /ru’kaniyoru hukuinsho/) and 冥福を祈る (“to pray its soul may rest in peace” /meehuku-o ino’ru/), as in ご冥福をお祈りいたします “May his soul rest in peace.”

  1. The kanji 副 “to accompany; assisting; copy”

History of Kanji 副For the kanji 副 in Large seal style, in purple, it had two “full narrow-neck containers” and “a knife” in between. They signified that a knife dividing wealth in two parts, a main part and an accompanying part. The meaning of the writing focused on the accompanying part, and it meant “to accompany; assisting; copy.” The seal style writing comprised 畐 and 刀 “knife” which was replaced by 刂, a bushu rittoo “knife on the right side” in the shinji 副. The kanji 副 means “to accompany; assisting; copy.” [Composition of the kanji 副: 畐 and 刂]

There is no kun-yomi in the Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /huku/ is in 副社長 (“vice president” /hukusha’choo/), 副本 (“duplicate” /hukuhon/), 正副二通 (“original and duplicate” /se’ehuku ni’tsuu/), 副産物 (“by product” /hukusa’nbutsu/), 副作用 (“side effect; adverse reaction” /hukusa’yoo/) and 副詞 (“adverb” /hukushi/).

  1. The kanji 幅 “width; counter of scroll”

History of Kanji 幅The seal style writing of the kanji 幅 comprised 巾 “cloth; lap robe” and 畐, which was used phonetically for /huku/ to mean something spreading sideways like a barrel. For a lap robe, fabric was used as it was woven with its width intact. It is also used as a counter for a scroll. The kanji 幅 means “width; counter of scroll.”  [Composition of the kanji 幅: 巾 and 畐]

The kun-yomi 幅 /haba/ means “width” and is in 横幅 (“width; wingspan” /yokohaba/). The on-yomi /-puku/ is in 振幅 (“amplitude” /shinpuku/) and 一幅 (“a scroll” /ippuku/), as in the expression 一幅の絵になる (“picturesque; pretty as a hanging scroll” /ippuku’no e’-ni naru/).

We shall continue with “container” in the next post. Since I am travelling next weekend I am afraid that it will have to be two weeks later. Thank you very much for your understanding. — Noriko [January 27, 2018]

The Kanji 吉結詰缶陶去却脚法–Container (2)

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This is the second post on kanji that originated from a container with a lid.  We are going to look at three types of containers with a lid–吉缶去. The kanji we explore are 吉結詰, 缶陶 and 去却脚法.

  1. The kanji 吉 “good luck; joy; auspicious”

History of Kanji 吉Various interpretations on the origin of the kanji 吉 are found in references, including (1) “a heap of food for celebratory feast,” – thus “joyous”; (2) “a warrior’s weapon” placed the blade side down in a ceremony and “a prayer box to confine evils” – “benediction” and (3) and “a container that is full inside which was securely plugged with a double lid,” and being full was “good.” When we look at the ancient writing all of those interpretations may make sense — (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, could be a heap of food for a feast; The top of (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, in green, and (d) in seal style, in red, appear to correspond with 士 “warrior; man” from a warrior’s axe, particularly (c) in which the thick blade at the bottom was thicker; and perhaps (e) could be viewed as (3), a container with a secure double plug at the top. Which account makes sense to us best?  It does not matter to me but in this blog I just pick one “a container with a tight lid” to move on. The kanji 吉 means “good luck; joy; auspicious.” [Composition of the kanji 吉: 士 and 口]

There is no kun-yomi in the Joyo-kanji. The on-yomi /kichi/ is in 吉日 (“lucky day” /kichijitsu; kitsujitsu/), 大吉 (“great good luck” in omikuji, an oracle on a strip of paper at a temple and shrine /daikichi/), and /kip-/ is in 吉報 (“good news” /kippoo/). Another on-yomi /kitsu/ is in 不吉な (“ominous” /hukitsu/-na).

  1. The kanji 結 “to tie; end; congregate into one”

History of Kanji 結The seal style writing of the kanji 結 had 糸, a bushu itohen “a skein of threads.” The right side 吉 was used phonetically for /kitsu; ketsu/ to mean “to be tightly contained in a jar.” The kanji 結 means “to tie; end; congregate into one.” [Composition of the kanji 結: 糸, 士 and 口]

The kun-yomi /musubu/ means “to tie a knot; conclude.” Another kun-yomi結う /yuu/ is in 髪を結う or 髪を結わえる (“to dress up one’s hair” /kami’-o yuu; kami’-o yuwae’ru/) and is in 結納 (“betrothal present; engagement gifts” /yuinoo/). The on-yomi /ketsu/ is in 結論 (“conclusion” /ketsuron/), 結果 (“result; outcome” /kekka/), 凍結する (“to freeze up” /tooketsu-suru/) and in the phrase 一致団結 (“solidarity” /i’tchi danketsu/).

  1. The kanji 詰 “to pack; full; rebuke; blame; squeeze; stand by”

History of Kanji 詰The seal style writing of the kanji 詰 comprised 言, a bushu gonben “word; language; to speak” and 吉 used phonetically for /kitsu/ to mean “containment.” Together pressing someone with accusing words meant “to blame; rebuke; criticize.” In Japanese it is also used to mean “to pack; cram; full” and “to stand by” from a room where on-duty gurds stays. The kanji 詰 means “to pack; full; rebuke; blame; squeeze; stand by.”[Composition of the kanji 詰: 言, 士 and 口]

The kun-yomi /tsume’ru/ means “to pack; stand by” and is in 詰め物 (“packed things; packing” /tsumemono/), 詰所 (“guard station; crew room” /tsume’sho/) and 詰まる (“to clog up; conjest” /tsuma’ru/). The on-yomi /kitsu/ is in 詰問する (“to rebuke; cross-examine /kitsumon-suru/).

  1. The kanji 缶 “can; tin”

History of Kanji 缶For the kanji 缶 in (a), (b) and (d) it was “a teraccotta container with a secure double lid to hold water and wine.” In (c) had the addition of 金 “metal” suggested a metal or bronze ware container that appeared later. In (f) 罐, in kyuji in blue, 雚 was added for /kan/ phonetically. From the writing (c) with a “metal” component, in Japanese it meant “metal container; can.” The kanji 缶 means “can; tin.” [Composition of the kanji 缶: 午 and 凵]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /kan/ is 缶 (“tin container; can” /ka’n/), 缶詰 (“canned food” /kanzu’me/) and 缶入りコーヒー (“canned coffee” /kan-iri-ko’ohii/) and アルミ缶 (“aluminum can” /arumikan/).

  1. The kanji 陶 “ceramic; to educate”

History of Kanji 陶For the kanji 陶 in the two bronze ware style writings the left side was “a hill-like mound of dirt” placed vertically. The right side had double images of “a person bending his back, kneading clay.” Together they meant people making pottery near an ascending kiln. 3 in seal style comprised a bushu kozatohen “hill” and 缶 “a clay container” wrapped in 勹  that signified “ceramics.” Together they meant “making ceramic in a kiln.” It also meant “to educate” from “kneading.” The knaji 陶 means “ceramic; to educate.” [Composition of the kanji 陶: 阝, 勹and 缶]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /too/ is in 陶器 (“pottery; earthenware” /to’oki/), 薫陶を受ける(“under someone’s tutelege; be taught by” /kuntoo-o uke’ru/) and 陶酔する (“to be fascinated; be intoxinated” /toosui-suru/).

  1. The kanji 去 “to leave; remove; past”

History of Kanji 去For the kanji 去 the oracle bone style and bronze ware style writings had “a person” above “an area; box” 口. Together “a person’s legs crossing over an area” signified “leaving and going far away.” The kanji 去 meant “to leave; remove.” In seal style the bottom became 凵 “receptacle”. In kanji 大 “a person” became 土 and the bottom ム. The kanji 去 means “to leave; remove; past.” [Composition of the kanji 去: 土 and ム]

The kun-yomi /saru/ means “to leave,” and is in 立ち去る (“to leave; go away” /tachisa’ru/). The on-yomi /kyo/ is in 去年 (“last year” /kyo’nen/) and 除去する (“to remove” /jo’kyo-suru/).

  1. The kanji 却 “to withdraw; retreat; on the contrary”

History of Kanji 却The seal style writing of the kanji 却 comprised 去 “to leave” and 卩 “a person kneeling down” signifying “receding.”  Together they meant “to make a retreat; withdraw.” It is also used to mean “on the contrary; all the more” in a phrase 却って. The kanji 却 means “to withdraw; retreat; on the contrary.” [Composition of the kanji 却: 土 ,  ム and 卩]

The kun-yomi /ka’ette/ means “on the contrary; all the more.” The on-yomi /kyaku/ is in 返却する (“to return (something)” /henkyaku-suru/), 退却する (“to retreat” /taikyaku-suru/), 売却する (“to sell; sell off” /baikyaku-suru/). /kyak-/ is in 却下する (“to dismiss; reject” /kyak’ka-suru/).

  1. The kanji 脚 “leg; foot”

History of Kanji 脚The seal style writing of the kanji 脚 comprised 月, a bushu nikuzuki  “a part of one’s body” and 却 “to retreat” used phonetically for /kyaku/. From the posture of legs knelt down one one backing down, it signified “leg; foot.” The kanji 脚 means “leg; foot.” [Composition of the kanji 脚: 月, 土 , ム and 卩]

The kun-yomi /ashi’/ means “leg; foot,” and is in 椅子の脚 (“chair leg” /isu-no-ashi/). The on-yomi /kyaku/ is in 三脚 (“tripod (for camera)” /sankyaku/), 脚色する (“to dramatize” /kyakushoku-suru/) and 脚本 (“play script; scenario” /kyakuhon/). Another on-yomi, which is a go-on /kya/ is in 脚立 (“stepladder” /kyatasu/) and 行脚 (“pilgrimage; travel around on foot” /a’ngya/).

  1. The kanji 法 “law; legal; court of law; method”

History of Kanji 法The kanji 法had a history of complex writings. One view of (a) and (b) is that the left side had 去 “to remove” and “water” and that the right side was “an imaginary animal that was believed to be used for divine judgment.” Together they meant “fair judgment; justice.” From that it meant “law.” In seal style in (c) 去 became more prominent, whereas in 4 an imaginary animal for justice was totally dropped. 灋 in 5 in Correct style is the kanji that reflected 3. The current kanji 法 reflects 4. The kanji 法 means “law; legal; court of law; method.” [Composition of the kanji 法: 氵, 土 and ム]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 法 (“law” /hoo/), 法律 (“law” /hooritsu/), 方法 (“method” /hoohoo/), 司法 (“judiciary” /shiho’o) and 違法行為 (“illegal act” /ihooko-oii/).  /-Poo/ is in文法 (“grammar” /bunpoo/) and 立法 (“legislation; law making” /rippoo/) and 民法 (“Civil law” /mi’npoo/) and 憲法 (“constitutional law” /ke’npoo/). Another on-yomi /hat-/ is in ご法度 (“prohibition” /gohatto/).

Together with the last post, we have picked up five shapes 合今吉缶 and 去 that originated from a container with a lid. It is quite surprising. In fact there are more to be looked at. I expect that we may have a couple of more posts to cover the remaining kanji. Thank you very much for your reading.  -Noriko [January 20, 2018]

The Kanji 方放倣訪芳坊房防妨肪旁傍-Agricultural tool (3)

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As the last post on kanji that originated from an agricultural implement we explore 方 this week. 方 is used phonetically either as /hoo/, as in the kanji 方放倣訪芳, or /boo/, as in the kanji 坊房防妨肪旁傍.

  1. The kanji 方 “direction; option; a square; method”

History of Kanji 方For the kanji 方 in (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, (c) and (d) in bronze ware style, in green, and (e) in seal style, in red, it was “a plough with a long handle” in which the handle pointing to directions, right and left, the pole at the top and the bottom with tines. From that it signified “four or all directions.” A direction is an “option.” Four directions make “a square.” The kanji 方 means “way; direction; option; a square; method.”

The kun-yomi /kata/ means “way,” as in やり方 (“the way to do” /yarikata/) and in a person in honorific style, as in 出席なさる方 (“a person who attends” /shusseki-nasa’ru-kata/). The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 方向 (“direction” /hookoo/), 方法 (“method; way to do” /hoohoo/), 四方 (“all directions; surrounding” /shiho’o/), 方々 (“everywhere” /ho’oboo/) and 方形 (“rectangular shape” /hookee/), 地方 (“country; rural area; local” /chiho’o/) and 一方で (“on the other hand” /ippo’o-de/).

  1. The kanji 放 “to release; free; emit”

History of Kanji 放For the kanji 放 the bronze ware style writing comprised 方 “all directions” used phonetically for /hoo/ and 攴 “a hand moving a stick,” which eventually became 攵, a bushu bokunyoo/bokuzukuri “to cause” in kanji. Together they meant “a hand letting a thing disperse to various directions; to release.” The kanji 放 means “to release; free; emit; cast.” [Composition of the kanji 放: 方 and 攵]

The kun-yomi /hana’su/ means “to release; let go,” and is in /hana’tsu/ “to emit; let out,” as in 光を放つ (“to give off light; flash” /hikari’o hanatsu/). /-Bana-su/ is in 手放す (“to part with; relinquish; sell” /tebana’su/) and 野放しにする (“to let run loose” /noba’nashi-suru/). The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 放送 (“broadcast” /hoosoo/), 放牧 (“grazing” /hooboku/), 釈放する (“to discharge; release” /shakuhoo/) and 追放 (“deportation; exile” /tuihoo/).

  1. The kanji 倣 “to follow; take after; emulate”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 倣. The kanji 倣 comprised イ, a bushu ninben “an act that one does,” and 放 used phonetically for /hoo/ to mean “to imitate,” together signifying “to take after.” The kanji 倣 means “to follow; take after; emulate.” [Composition of the kanji 倣: イ, 方 and 攵]

The kun-yomi 倣う /nara’u/ means “to follow; emulate; copy.” The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 模倣する (“to imitate; copy” /mohoo-suru/).

    4. The kanji 訪 “to visit; travel to”

History of Kanji 訪For the kanji 訪 the seal style writing comprised 言 “word; language; to say” and 方 “direction” used phonetically for /hoo/, together signifying “asking how to get to a place” when one visited someone. The kanji 訪 means “to visit; travel to.” [Composition of the kanji 訪: 言 and 方]

The kun-yomi 訪れる /otozure’ru/ means “to visit; come.” The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 訪問 (“visit” /hoomoo/) and 来訪する (“to be visited by” /raihoo-suru/).

  1. The kanji 芳 “fragrant; good”

History of Kanji 芳For the kanji 芳 the seal style writing comprised 艸 “plants” and 方 “to emit; cast” used phonetically for /hoo/. A fragrant plant spreads its aroma in all directions. It is also applied on person having good reputation. The kanji 芳 means “fragrant; good.” [Composition of the kanji 芳: 艹and方 ]

The kun-yomi 芳しい  /kanbashi’i/ means “fragrant.” The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 芳香 (“aroma; sweet smell” /hookoo/) and 芳名録 (“visitor’s book list” /hoome’eroku).

The next kanji 坊房防妨肪旁傍 are all pronounced as /boo/.

  1. The kanji 坊 “tyke; youngster”

History of Kanji 坊The seal style writing of the kanji 坊 comprised 土 “gound; soil” and 方 “a square area” used phonetically for /boo/. Together they originally meant “a block or a section of an area or a house” that was on the ground. The kanji 坊 means “section; living quarters in a temple.” It is also used as a suffix (often affectionately) to mean “tyke; youngster.”  [Composition of the kanji 坊: 土へんand 方]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /bo’o/ is in 赤ん坊 (“baby” /akanboo/), 朝寝坊 (“late riser” /asane’boo/), 忘れん坊 (“forgetful person” /wasurenboo/), 坊主 (“Buddhist priest” /bo’ozu/) and 坊主頭 (“shaven head; close-cropped hair” /boozua’tama/).

  1. The kanji 房 “room; quarters; tassel”

History of Kanji 房The seal style writing of the kanji 房 comprised 戸 “a single door” and 方 “a square” used phonetically for /boo/. Together they meant “a small quarter that was located on the side of a house.” From that it meant “living quarters; room.” A tassel hangs loosely on the side from the main body, and it meant “a tassel.” The kanji 房 means “room; quarters; tassel; something hanging.” [Composition of the kanji 房: 戸 and 方]

The kun-yomi /husa/ is used as a counter for grapes, as in 一房, and /-busa/ is in 乳房 (“breast” /chibusa/). The on-yomi /boo/ is in 冷房 (“air-conditioner” /reeboo/), 女房 (“wife” /nyo’oboo/) and 文房具 (“stationery; writing materials” /bunbo’ogu/).

  1. The kanji 防 “to prevent; defend”

History of Kanji 防In seal style the left writing of the kanji 防 comprised a bushu kozatohen “mountains; dirt wall” and 方 “four directions” used phonetically for /boo/. The second writing had 土 added to emphasize “dirt.” Together they signified “a high dirt wall that was built to prevent an enemy from coming in.” The kanji 防 means “to prevent; defend.” [Composition of the kanji 防: 阝 and 方]

The kun-yomi 防ぐ /huse’gu/ means “to prevent.” The on-yomi /boo/ is in 予防 (“prevention” /yoboo/), 防衛 (“defence” /booee/) and 堤防 (“dike; embankment” /teeboo/).

  1. The kanji 妨 “to obstruct; hamper”

History of Kanji 妨The seal style writing of the kanji 妨 comprised 女 “woman; female” and 方 used phonetically for /boo/ to mean “to prevent,” perhaps related to 防. Together preventing to come close to a woman meant “to obstruct.” The kanji 妨 means “to obstruct; hamper.” [Composition of the kanji 妨: 女へん and 方]

The kun-yomi 妨げる /samatage’ru/ means “to obstruct,” and is in 妨げとなる (“to become an obstacle” /samatage-to-na’ru/). The on-yomi /boo/ is in 妨害する (“to hinder; obstruct” /boogai-suru/).

  1. The kanji 肪 “fat”

History of Kanji 肪The seal style writing of the kanji 肪 comprised 月 “a part of a body,” which become a bushu nikuzuki, and 方used phonetically for /boo/ to mean “to spread out.” The part of one’s body that spreads out meant “fat; corpulent.” The kanji 肪 means “fat.” [Composition of the kanji 肪: 月 and 方]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /boo/ is in 脂肪 (“fat” /shiboo/), 脂肪分 (“fat content” /shibo’obun/) and 牛脂 (“beef fat” /gyuushi/).

  1. The kanji 旁 “right side component of kanji”

History of Kanji 旁The kanji 旁 is used for the word 旁 /tsukuri/ “the right side of kanji that usually carries a phonetic feature,” in contrast to 扁 /hen/ “the left side of kanji that usually carries a semantic feature.” The kanji 旁 is not a frequently kanji at all. (It does not come in among the 2200 kanji by frequency in Tokuhiro (2014).) Nonetheless for us kanji learners it may pop up sometimes, so we include it here.

The shape at the top of (a) in oracle bone style and (c) in bronze ware style appeared in the ancient writings of other kanji (such as 凡 and 同 among other kanji), and is generally viewed as “a board”  A board signifies “a square with four sides. (b) had a bar in which two ends were marked. It meant “side.” The kanji 旁 meant “side; on the side.”

  1. The kanji 傍 “side; to stand by”

History of Kanji 傍The seal style writing of the kanji 傍 comprised “an act that one does” and 旁 “on the side,” used phonetically for /boo/. Together they signified “a person standing by the side” (for a reason.) The kanji 傍 means “side; to stand by.” [Composition of the kanji 傍: イand 旁]

The kun-yomi 傍 /katawara/ means “side.” The on-yomi /boo/ means 傍観する (“to look on; stand by” /bookan-suru/) and 傍聴席 (“seat for the public; pubic gallery” /boocho’oseki/).

In the next post, we shall move onto a group of kanji that originated from a container or something that holds stuff. Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [January 6, 2018]

The Kanji 力協脅脇加賀架勃励劣-agricultural tool (2)

Standard

The second agricultural implement we look at is what became the kanji 力. I have been using the word “plough (plow)” for 力 in the past, because it had teeth or pegs at the end. It is more likely that this was a hand tool, rather than a machine. Should we call it a harrow? I do not know the answer. In this post we stick to the word plough for the time being. The kanji that contain 力 that we are going to explore here are: 力協脅脇加賀架勃励劣.

  1. The kanji 力 “power; strength”

History of Kanji 力For the kanji 力, there are two different views. One view, by Setsumon, is that the bottom suggested that it was a hand, and that the curve at the top in (c) in bronze ware style, in green, and (d) in seal style, in red, was “muscles in the arm,” and that flexing muscles meant “strength; power.” This view has been the traditional view. Another view in Shirakawa’s Shinjito is that the bottom was “a plough; a digging fork” in the field. In working in the field one had to apply much muscular strength. In this blog we take the second view. The kanji 力 means “power; strength.”  (For the stroke order, you write the angled stroke first.)

The kun-yomi 力 /chikara’/ means “might; power; strength,” and is in 力仕事 (“heavy labor” /chikarashi’goto/). /-Jikara/ is in 馬鹿力を出す (“to give incredible physical strength” /bakaji’kara-o da’su/). The on-yomi /riki/ is in 力量 (“ability; capacity” /rikiryoo/), 馬力 (“horsepower; energy” /bariki/). Another on-yomi /ryoku/ is in 体力 (“physical strength” /ta’iryoku/) and 重力 (“gravity” /ju’uryoku/).

  1. The kanji 協 “to cooperate; give help to others”

History of Kanji 協For the kanji 協, the Old style writing, in gray, comprised 口 “mouth” and 十 “to bundle up to one.” The seal style writing had “three ploughs” together, which was used phonetically for /kyoo/. Together they meant many people work together in a field, giving help to others. The kanji 協 means “to cooperate; give help to others.” <Composition of the kanji 協: a narrow 十 and three力>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi kyoo is in 協力する (“to cooperate; collaborate” /kyooryoku-suru/), 生協 (“co-op” /se’ekyoo/) and 協会 (“association; society” /kyookai/).

  1. The kanji 脅 “to threaten; menace; coerce”

History of Kanji 脅The kanji 脅 and the next kanji 脇 shared the same seal style writing — “three ploughs” and 月 “a part of one’s body”– and yet they have different meanings. For the kanji 脅, the top was used phonetically for /kyoo/ to mean “power,” and the bottom 月 was “a part of one’s body.” Together “powers over one’s body” meant “to threaten; menace; coerce.” <Composition of the kanji: Three 力 and 月>

The kun-yomi 脅す /odosu/ means “to threaten,” and is in 脅し取る (“to blackmail; extort” /odoshito’ru/). The on-yomi /kyoo/ is in 脅迫する (“to intimidate; threaten” /kyoohaku-suru/) and 脅威となる (“to become the menace” /kyo’oi-to-naru/).

  1. The kanji 脇 “side of one’s body; flank; supporting role”

History of Kanji 脇The seal style writing of the kanji 脇 was the same as 脅. In the kanji 脇, “three ploughs lining up” signified “ribs.” Together with 月, a bushu nikuzuki “flesh,” they meant “side (of one’s body); flank.” It also means “supporting role.” The kanji 脇 means “side of one’s body; flank; supporting role.” <Composition of the kanji: 月 and three 力>

The kun-yomi 脇 /waki/ means “one’s side,” and is in 脇役 (“supporting role” /wakiyaku/) and 脇腹が痛い (“to have a pain in the side” /wakibara-ga ita’i/). There is no on-yomi.

  1. The kanji 加 “to add”

History of Kanji 加For the kanji 加 the two bronze ware style writings comprised “a plough; a digging fork” that was placed sideways and “a mouth.” When doing heavy labor in the field adding voice was encouraging in exerting effort. It meant “to add.” The katakana カ and the hiragana か came from the kanji 加. The kanji 加 means “to add.” <Composition of the kanji 加: 力 and 口>

The kun-yomi 加える /kuwaeru/ means “to add,” and 加わる /kuwawaru/ means “to join.” The on-yomi /ka/ is in 追加 (“addition; supplement” /tsuika/), 増加 (“increase” /zooka/), 加味する (“to take something into account” /ka’mi-suru/). 加減 (“addition and subtraction” /kagen/) is also used to mean “one’s condition” in the expression お加減はいかかですか (“How do you feel?” /oka’gen-wa ika’ga-desu-ka?/) in inquiring someone who has been sick.

  1. The kanji 賀 “to celebrate; auspicious”

History of Kanji 賀For the kanji 賀 the bronze ware style writing comprised “a cowrie; valuable,” and “a plough” and “a mouth,” which was phonetically used for /ka/ to mean “to add.” One gave someone a valuable gift at a time of celebration. It meant “to celebrate; congratulate; auspicious occasion.” In seal style and in kanji the cowrie was moved to the bottom. The kanji 賀 means “to celebrate; auspicious.”  <Composition of the kanji 賀: 力, 口 and 貝>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ga/ is in 祝賀会 (“celebratory party” /shukuga’kai/) and 賀正 (“New Year’s greeting in writing” /gashoo/).

  1. The kanji 架 “building something over; to bridge over”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 架. The top 加 was used phonetically for /ka/. 加 above 木 “a tree” signified “building something over at a high place.” The kanji 架 means “to bridge over; building something above.”<Composition of the kanji 架: 力, 口 and 木>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ka/ is in 架線 (“overhead wire” /kasen/), 架橋 (“crosslink; bridging” /kakyoo/) and 高架道路 (“elevated road” /kookado’oro/).

  1. The kanji 勃 “to happen abrupt; enegetic”

History of Kanji 勃For the kanji 勃 the left side of the seal style was “a plant whose center was bulging with a seed,” and was used phonetically for /botsu/ to mean “a sudden change; a force pushing out from within.” A child at the bottom may suggest a seed. The right side “plough” added “power.” Together they meant “sudden occurrence.” The kanji 勃 means “to happen abruptly; energetic.”<Composition of the kanji 勃: a truncated 十, , 子 and 力>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /botsu/ is in 勃興 (“sudden rise; rise to power” /bokkoo/) and 暴動が勃発する (“a riot breaks out” /boodoo-ga boppatsu-suru/).

  1. The kanji 励 “to strive for; give encouragement; industrious”

History of Kanji 励There is no ancient writing for the kanji 励.  The left side of the kyuji 勵, in blue, for the kanji 励 was used phonetically for /ree/ to mean either “a hard mineral rock” or “a poisonous scorpion.” The right side 力 “plough” signified “hard field work.” Together they meant “to strive for; labor for; be industrious; give encouragement.” In kanji the left side became 厂 and 万. <Composition of the kanji 励: 厂, 万 and 力>

The kun-yomi 励む /hage’mu/ means (“to endeavour; be industrious” /hage’mu/) and in 励ます (“to cheer; support” /gahema’su/). The on-yomi /ree/ is in 奨励する (“to recomment; encourage” /shooree-suru/) and 激励する (“to encourage” /gekiree-suru/).

  1. The kanji 劣 “inferior; to deteriorate”

History of Kanji 劣The seal style writing of the kanji 劣 comprised 少 “a little” and 力 “power.” Together “lack of strength” meant “inferior.” The kanji 劣 means “inferior; to deteriorate.” <Composition of the kanji 劣: 少 and力>

The kun-yomi 劣る /oto’ru/ means “inferior,” and 見劣りする (“pale in comparison” /miotori-suru/). The on-yomi /retsu/ means 劣化する (“to deteriorate” /rekka-suru/) and 優劣をつける (“to judge which is better” /yu’uretsu-o tsuke’ru/).

The year 2017 is almost over. I truly thank our readers who have followed my posting or have visited our site from time to time. Your interest and support have helped me in continuing my weekly writing and preparing my manuscripts for a future book. I wish you and your family a very happy new year.   – Noriko [December 30, 2017]