In this post, we are going to look at kanji in which the component 田 did not come from “rice paddies.” Three origins are discussed here — [A] The shape 田 from “head of the spirit of the dead” in the kanji 鬼畏異; [B] The shape 田 “brain” from “baby’s skull viewed from above” in the kanji 細思脳悩; and [C] The shape 田 from “stomach” in the kanji 胃.
[A] The shape 田 from “head of the spirit of the dead”– 鬼畏 and 異
The kanji 畏 has the 田 shape at the top, but in order to discuss that it may be useful to look at a closely related kanji 鬼 first.
The kanji 鬼 “devil; deceased”
In the history of the kanji 鬼 shown on the left, in oracle bone style, in brown, it was a figure with a square head with a crisscross inside kneeling down. The crisscross inside the square shape signified a fierce expression of a deceased person. It meant the spirit of a deceased person. In bronze ware style, in green, the head became a pointed shape. In the old style that predated ten style given in Setsumon, in gray, the left side had an altar table, and a small shape that signified a dark spirit was added next to the figure. In ten style, in red, an altar table was not present. The kanji reflected ten style writing, including the top short stroke above the head as a short slanted stroke. From the spirit of the dead in its origin, 鬼 was used to signify mysterious ability or supernatural power.
The kun-yomi /oni’/ means “ogre; devil,” and is in 鬼退治 “slaying the ogre” in folktale, 鬼ごっこ (“a game of tag” /onigo’kko/) in children’s play, and 仕事の鬼 (“demon for work” /shigoto-no-oni’/). The on-yomi /ki/ is in 鬼才 (“genius; a person of extraordinary talent” /kisai/) and 鬼門 (“weak point; area to be avoided” /kimon/). The expression 鬼籍に入る (“to join the necrology; to die” /ki’seki-ni hai’ru/) takes the original meaning of the spirit of a deceased person. Other kanji that contain 鬼 among the Joyo kanji all reflect “spirit” in its origin. They are 魂 (“soul; spirit” /ta’mashii/ in kun-yomi, /ko’n/ in on-yomi), 魅 (“charm” /mi/ in on-yomi) and 醜 (“ugly” /miniku’i/ in kun-yomi, /shu’u/ in on-yomi).
The kanji 畏 “to revere; obey respectfully”
In the oracle bone style sample of the kanji 畏 (a), we recognize a shape similar to the kanji 鬼 on the left, with a couple of differences — the figure in 畏 was standing whereas the figure in 鬼 was kneeling; and 畏 had a stick. A figure of the spirit of the dead carrying a stick signified something to be feared. The bronze ware style samples (b) and (c) had the position switched. In the third bronze ware style sample (d) another set of elements was added on the right side — a stick and a hand. As we have discussed before, “a stick” and “a hand” made up the meaning “to cause an action to happen,” which became a bushu bokuzukuri 攴, or 攵 in a newer kanji [the postings on October 18 and 24, 2014]. So the right side reinforced the meaning “making someone revere or obey respectfully.” In ten style, (f), just as we saw in 鬼, the pointed head changed to a short line sticking out above the head. The bottom shape is difficult to make out (and its older style given in Setsumon (e) is not helpful to me either.) The best I can do is to suggest that the stick on the left, the body in the center and a hand contributed to this shape. The kanji 畏 means “to be fearful of; awe.”
The kun-yomi 畏れる /osore’ru/ means “to revere; awe,” and another kun-yomi 畏まる /kashikoma’ru/ (this sound not on the Joyo kanji list) means “to obey respectfully; humble oneself.” The polite expression かしこまりました (“Certainly; I understand.” /kashikomarima’shita/) comes from this verb. The on-yomi /i/ is in 畏敬の念 (“reverence; awe” /ikee-no-ne’n/) and 畏怖の念 (“fearful; with awe” /ihu-no-ne’n/).
The kanji 異: Another kanji that had the shape 田 related to a fierce facial expression or a spirit is the kanji 異. [Two post on May 31, 2014 and September 26, 2014]. In 異, rather than a face bearing fierce expression, it was a mask worn in a votive play. In oracle bone style and bronze ware style on the right we see two hands holding a mask of a fearsome face. The ten style sample had a stage for the votive play added. Putting on a mask of an extraordinary face changes the wearer into another person. It meant “different.”
There is another difference in ten style. In the ten style of 鬼 and 畏 from “face/head,” there was a short line sticking out at the top whereas 異 from “mask” did not. Then, if we look at the ten style samples of the kanji 細思脳悩, which originated from a baby’s skull as we are about to see,we notice that they all have a short line at the top. So, it appears that this short line at the top in ten style did carry the meaning of a head as a part of the body. In the case of 鬼, it retained as the short slanted stroke in kanji.
[B] The shape田 “brain” from baby’s skull
The next four kanji shared the same shape in ten style — a rounded square with a diagonal crisscross and a short line on top. That shape became 田 in the kanji 細 and 思, but not in the kanji 脳 or 悩.
The kanji 細 “small; thin”
The left side of the ten style of the kanji 細 was a skein of threads, which signified “long and thin,” and it became the bushu itohen. On the right side was a rounded square shape with a diagonal crisscross inside and a short line at the top. This shape came from an infant small head with a fontanel that was viewed from the top. A fontanel is a soft spot between the bones of the skull and it is called ひよめき /hiyomeki/ or 泉門 /senmon/ in Japanese. The gap is so small that it signified “smallness.” Together they meant something “long and thin; very small.” In an earlier kanji for 細, the right side had 囟 (if your browser comes as blank, it is (b) in the purple table on the right.) The diagonal crisscross was similar to a katakana メ.
The kanji 思: The kanji 思 shared the same origin as “brain” as 細. We have looked at the kanji 思 in connection with 心 “heart.”[February 7, 2015] In ten style the top was an infant head where the bones of the skull had not closed completely and it signified the brain. Together with an anatomical shape of a “heart” they meant “to think.” In kanji the top took the shape 田 and the bottom 心.
The kanji 脳 ”brain” and 悩 “torment; distress” The meaning of “brain” from a baby’s skull with a fontanel shape not only became the shape 田, but it also became an combination of a receptacle with a katakana /me/ inside, in kanji such as 脳 and 悩. We revisit those kanji that we looked at earlier [February 21, 2015] to focus on the role of “brain.”
The kanji 脳: The left side of the ten style writing of the kanji 脳 (a) on the right was a person. On the right side in addition to an infant head viewed from above, it had three wavy lines. Those were fully grown hair. So, the right side was no longer that of an infant, but of a person. Together they meant “brain.” (b) and (c) were both older kanji, (b) with a person from ten style, and (c) with the body radical nikuzuki 月. Officially (c) was the kyujitai. In shinjitai (d) the right side had a simplified shape ツ and the bottom was replaced by a receptacle shape with メ inside.
The kanji 悩: The left side of the ten style writing was a woman, whose role is not clear. It meant “to torment; distress.” In kyujitai 女 was replaced by the bushu risshinben “heart.” In shinjitai, the right side have gone through the same process as 脳.
In [B] we have looked at four kanji 細思脳 and 悩, that originated from a baby’s skull. They all share the same ten style shapes with a diagonal crisscross inside (囟). The baby’s skull became 田 in two kanji 細 and 思, and a receptacle with a メ in 脳 and 悩.
One more “not rice paddies” 田 here — 胃.
[C] The shape 田 from “stomach”
The kanji 胃
In bronze ware style of the kanji 胃, the top was a stomach that contained food. The dots signified that it had food particles and was not empty. The bottom came from a piece of meat, which signified that the writing was about a part of a body. Together they meant “stomach.” There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 胃 /i/ means “stomach,’ and is in 胃腸 (“stomach and intestines” /ichoo/).
Next we are going to move onto another topic of “habitats.” Since we have discussed a house in the bushu ukanmuri “house,” anakanmuri “opening (in a cave dwelling),” and madare “house with one side open” before we spent four posts on the bushu ta “rice paddies,” how about returning to a house and looking at a door and a gate next time? [July 25, 2015]