The Kanji 豆豊艶壱富福副幅 – “Container” (3)


In this post we continue to explore kanji that originated from a container. The kanji are豆豊艶壱 from 豆 “a tall stemmed container” and 富福副幅 from 畐 “a narrow-necked container with a lid which is filled with wealth at the bottom.” ­­

  1. The kanji 豆 “bean; miniature”

History of Kanji 豆For the kanji 豆 in the oracle bone style writing, in brown, the two bronze ware style writings, in green, and the seal style writing, in red, it was “a tall raised or stemmed bowl,” and was /too/ phonetically. Later it was borrowed to mean “bean.” [Composition of the kanji 豆: 一, a side-long 口, a truncated ソ and 一]

The kun-yomi /mame’/ means “bean; miniature,” and is in 豆電球 (“miniature light bulb” /mamede’nkyuu/) and 枝豆 (“boiled salted green beans in pods” /edamame/). The on-yomi /too/ is in 豆腐 (“bean curd” /toohu/) and 納豆 (“fermented soy beans; natto” /natto’o/). Another on-yomi /zu/ is in 大豆(“soy bean” /daizu/). In Japanese it is also used for 小豆 (“azuki bean” for sweets /azuki/).

History of Kanji 頭The kanji “head” has 豆 on the left side too. We have discussed this kanji in the post on November 15, 2014 in connection with the bushu oogai 頁 “head.” 豆 was used phonetically for /too/ and /zu/.

  1. The kanji 豊 “abundance; affluent; plentiful; rich”

History of Kanji 豊For the kanji 豊 on (a) in oracle bone style, (b) in bronze ware style and (c) and (d) in seal style one view is that it was “a tall stemmed bowl with millet stalks,” which signified “abundance of harvest.” It meant “abundance.” Another view is that the top was strands of jewels, rather than mille stalks, and it signified “wealth.” In either view the bottom was a tall stemmed bowl that was used phonetically for /too/. The kyuji 豐, (e) in blue, reflected (d), but in shinji, the top became simplified to 曲. The kanji 豊 means “abundance; affluent; plentiful; rich.”  [Composition of the kanji 豊: 曲 and 豆]

The kun-yomi 豊か /yu’taka/ means “rich; abundance; plentiful” and is in  心豊かな (“fertile mind; spiritually rich” /kokoroyu’taka-na/). The on-yomi /hoo/ is in 豊富な (“abundant; rich; plentiful” /hoohu-na/), 豊作 (“good harvest” /hoosaku/), 豊年 (“year of good harvest” /hoonen/) and 豊満な (“plump” /hooman-na/).

  1. The kanji 艶 “glossy; women’s charm; attractiveness; enchanting”

History of Kanji 艶The seal style writing of the kanji 艶, (a) comprised 豊 “plentiful; abundant” and the right side that signified “a lid (去) over a vessel (皿).” Plentiful food or offerings in a vessel was “desirable,” which further meant “enchanting; attractive” in appearance. (b) 豔 reflected (a). (c) was an informal writing of (b), in which 色 suggested “attractiveness.” The top of (c) still reflected (a). In the shinji 艷 the top became 曲. The kanji 艶 means “glossy; (women’s) enchanting.” [Composition of the kanji 艶: 豊 and 色]

The kun-yomi /tsuya/ means “luster” and is in 艶のある (“shiny; glossy” /tsuya-no-a’ru/) and 色艶のいい (“of good glossy color” /iro’tsuya-no i’i/). Another kun-yomi艶やかな (“glamorous; charming” /ade’yakana/ is not in the Joyo kanji reading. The on-yomi /en/ is 妖艶な (“bewitching” /yooen-na/) and 艶聞 (“rumor of love-affair” /enbun/).

  1. The kanji 壱 “one”

History of Kanji 壱For the kanji 壱 in bronze ware style and seal style it was “a pot or crock that had a secure lid.” A tightly closed pot was filled with fermented air. The bottom of 4 in kyuji, 壹, was 豆, reflecting the original meaning. It was borrowed to mean “one” and is used to avoid misreading the kanji 一 in an important receipt, draft or check. One can easily imagine that it is very easy to add another line or two to 一 to tamper the original number. The kanji 二 and 三 also had a formal writing — the kanji 貮弐 for 二 and 参 for 三. The kanji 壱 means “one; single.”  [Composition of the kanji 壱: 士, 冖 and ヒ]

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ichi/ is in 金壱万円 (“10,000 yen” in formal receipt and check  /ki’n ichiman-en/).

  1. The kanji 富 “wealth”

History of Kanji 富For the kanji 富 in bronze ware style the top was “a house” and the inside was “a narrow neck container with a lid whose bottom was swelled in the middle.” A house that had a container that was filled with treasure or things signified “wealth; wealthy; fortune.” Inside of the seal style the container shape became 畐 — a lid, an opening and a full container itself. The kanji 富 means “wealth; fortune.” [Composition of the kanji 富 : 宀, 一, 口 and 田]

The kun-yomi /to’mi/ is “wealth.” The on-yomi /hu/ is in 富豪 (“person of great wealth; millionaire” /hugoo/), 富国 (“national wealth” /hukoku/) and 富裕層 (“the well-off; wealthy class” /huyu’usoo/). /Huu/ is in 富貴 (“wealth and honor” /hu’uki/). /-Pu/ is in 貧富の差 (“disparity of wealth” /hi’npu-no-sa/.)

  1. The kanji 福 “good luck; bliss; blessing; fortune”

History of Kanji 福For the kanji 福 in oracle bone style (a) had “a wine cask filled with a lid with wine that was raised by two hands” and “an altar table with offering” on the top left, while 2 did not have hands. By placing a cask full of stuff on an altar table, one prayed for blessing from a god. It meant “bliss; good luck; happiness.” In (c) and (d) in bronze ware style an altar table with offering began to take the shape 示. In (e) in seal style a full container with a lid became 畐, which is reflected in the kyuji 福, (f). In shinji 福, the left side became ネ, a bushu shimesuhen “religious matter.” The kanji 福 means “good luck; bliss; blessing; fortune.”   [Composition of the kanji 福: ネ and 畐]

There is no kun-yomi in Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /huku/ means “good luck; blessing,” and is in 幸福な (“happy; blissful” /koohuku-n/), 祝福 (“blessing” /shukuhuku/), 福々しい (“plump and happy looking” /hukubukushi’i/), 福祉 (“welfare; well-being” /huku’shi/), ルカによる福音書 (“the Gospel according to Luke” /ru’kaniyoru hukuinsho/) and 冥福を祈る (“to pray its soul may rest in peace” /meehuku-o ino’ru/), as in ご冥福をお祈りいたします “May his soul rest in peace.”

  1. The kanji 副 “to accompany; assisting; copy”

History of Kanji 副For the kanji 副 in Large seal style, in purple, it had two “full narrow-neck containers” and “a knife” in between. They signified that a knife dividing wealth in two parts, a main part and an accompanying part. The meaning of the writing focused on the accompanying part, and it meant “to accompany; assisting; copy.” The seal style writing comprised 畐 and 刀 “knife” which was replaced by 刂, a bushu rittoo “knife on the right side” in the shinji 副. The kanji 副 means “to accompany; assisting; copy.” [Composition of the kanji 副: 畐 and 刂]

There is no kun-yomi in the Joyo kanji. The on-yomi /huku/ is in 副社長 (“vice president” /hukusha’choo/), 副本 (“duplicate” /hukuhon/), 正副二通 (“original and duplicate” /se’ehuku ni’tsuu/), 副産物 (“by product” /hukusa’nbutsu/), 副作用 (“side effect; adverse reaction” /hukusa’yoo/) and 副詞 (“adverb” /hukushi/).

  1. The kanji 幅 “width; counter of scroll”

History of Kanji 幅The seal style writing of the kanji 幅 comprised 巾 “cloth; lap robe” and 畐, which was used phonetically for /huku/ to mean something spreading sideways like a barrel. For a lap robe, fabric was used as it was woven with its width intact. It is also used as a counter for a scroll. The kanji 幅 means “width; counter of scroll.”  [Composition of the kanji 幅: 巾 and 畐]

The kun-yomi 幅 /haba/ means “width” and is in 横幅 (“width; wingspan” /yokohaba/). The on-yomi /-puku/ is in 振幅 (“amplitude” /shinpuku/) and 一幅 (“a scroll” /ippuku/), as in the expression 一幅の絵になる (“picturesque; pretty as a hanging scroll” /ippuku’no e’-ni naru/).

We shall continue with “container” in the next post. Since I am travelling next weekend I am afraid that it will have to be two weeks later. Thank you very much for your understanding. — Noriko [January 27, 2018]

The Kanji 社礼福祉禅祝禍祖 — しめすへん (ネ)


In the last post (The Kanji 示宗禁祭際察擦崇奈–“altar table”) we looked at kanji that contain a component 示 “an altar table with offerings,” where the will of a god was viewed to appear — thus signified “pertaining to religious matter.” In this post we are going to explore kanji in which the original altar table changed to ネ, a bushu shimesuhen “religious matter” in shinji — the kanji 社礼福祉禅祝禍祖.

  1. The kanji 社 “shrine; company of people; corporation”

History of Kanji 社

sThe oracle bone style writing for the kanji 社, in brown, was a pack of dirt placed on the ground with sprinkles of rice wine that was sanctifying the ground. It meant the god of the earth or a place of worship or a shrine. In bronze ware style, in green, it was the same as 土  “soil; earth; ground” (the bulge indicated a pack of dirt). In seal style, in red, an altar table was added to the left. The kyuji, in blue, reflected seal style. In shinji 社, 示 on the left side changed to ネ, a bushu shimesuhen. A place of worship was where many people congregated, and 社 also meant “company of people,” and, in Japanese, “corporation.” The kanji 社 means “shrine; company of people; corporation.”

The kun-yomi 社 /ya’shiro/ means “shrine.” The on-yomi /sha/ is in 社会 (“society” /sha’kai/), 会社 (“corporation” /kaisha/), 結社 (“establishment; organization” /kessha/), 社交的 (“sociable; gregarious” /shakooteki/) and 社会人 (“member of society; working adult” /shaka’ijin/).

  1. The kanji 礼 “propriety; a bow”

History of Kanji 礼For the kanji 礼 in (a) in bronze ware style, the top was two strings of cowries strung together or jewelries, and the bottom was a tall container. Together they meant abundant offering to a deity. The two Old style writings, in purple, came from an entirely different origin– (b) was an altar table with the offering on top, and (c) had a person kneeling to worship added on the right side. It meant “propriety (of ceremony).” (d) in seal style was comprised of 示 and 豊, which came from (a). The kyuji 禮, (e), reflected seal style (d), and is still used in formal occasions. The shinji uses 礼, in line with Old style (b) and (c).  The kanji 礼 means “propriety; a bow.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 礼 /re’e/ means “salute; bow,” and is in 一礼する (“to make a light bow to” /ichiree-suru/), 敬礼 (“salute” /keeree/), 失礼 (“discourtesy; impoliteness /shitsu’ree/), 礼儀正しい (“gracious; civilized; well-mannered” /reegitadashi’i/) and 儀礼的な (“ceremonious” /gireetekina/).

  1. The kanji 福 “blessing; good luck”

History of Kanji 福For the kanji 福, (a) in oracle bone style was comprised of an altar table at the top left and a rice wine cask that was raised by two hands. Placing a full wine cask on the altar, one prayed for blessing from the god. (b) ddid not have two hands. In bronze ware style, (c) and (d) had an altar table and a wine cask that was filled with wine (the cross at the bottom indicated that it was not empty.)  In seal style (e) reflected (c), in line with the general arrangement of a semantic-phonetic formation of kanji (keisei-moji) –a left component for meaning and a right component for sound. The kanji 福 meant “blessing; good luck.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi 福 /huku/ means “blessing; good fortune,” and is in 祝福 (“benediction; blessing” /shukuhuku/), 幸福な (“happy” /koohukuna/), 福音 (“the Christian gospel; good tidings” /hukuin/) and 福袋 (“grab bag; mystery shopping bag” /hukubu’kuro/).

  1. The kanji 祉 “blessing”

History of Kanji 祉The oracle bone style writing of the kanji 祉 had an altar table for “deity,” and 止 was used phonetically for /shi/ to mean “to remain.” Together they meant “the god’s blessing remained.”  The kanji 祉 means “blessing; happiness given by a god,” but in the current Japanese the use is limited to the word 福祉.  There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shi/ is in 福祉 (“welfare; well-being” /huku’shi/).

  1. The kanji 禅 “Zen sect; to pass on a throne peacefully”

History of Kanji 禅The seal style writing of the kanji 禅 was comprised of an altar table, signifying “worshipping,” and 單, which was used phonetically for /tan; zen/. Together they originally meant a platform or a raised area where a deity was worshipped. Following a god’s will one passed on a throne to someone else peacefully, and it meant “to pass on power peacefully.”  Later on it also came to be used to mean a Buddhist sect. In shinji the left side 示 became ネ a bushu shimesuhen. The kanji 禅 means “Zen sect; to vacate a throne (peacefully).”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /zen/ is in 禅宗 (“Zen sect of Buddhism” /zenshuu/) and 座禅を組む (“to sit in Zen meditation” /zazen-o ku’mu/).  The word 禅譲 (“peaceful evacuation of a throne” /zenjoo/) is a highly specialized word.

  1. The kanji 祝 “to celebrate”

History of Kanji 祝For the kanji 祝 the writing in oracle bone style, bronze were style and seal style all was comprised of 示 “altar table” and 兄 “elder brother;  elder person.” Together from an elder person worshipping and celebrating the god, the kanji 祝 meant “to celebrate.”

The kun-yomi 祝い /iwai/ means “celebration,” and is in 祝い酒 (“celebration drink” /iwai’zake/). The on-yomi /shuku/ is in 祝賀会 (“celebratory party” /shukuga’kai/). Another on-yomi /shuu/ is in 祝言 (“marriage ceremony” /shu’ugen/) and 祝儀 (“tip on celebratory occasion” /shu’ugi/).

  1. The kanji 禍 “misfortune; calamity”

History of Kanji 禍For the kanji 禍 what the shape in oracle bone style was about is not clear. The source from which I have taken this writing (Shirakawa) does not appear to be addressing it. The bronze ware style writing was comprised of an altar table and bones of a deceased (咼). Together they meant “affliction; catastrophe.” The kanji 禍 meant “misfortune; calamity.”

The kun-yomi 禍 /wazawai/ means “calamity.” The on-yomi /ka/ is in 戦禍 (“the turmoil of war; wartime chaos” /se’nka/) and 舌禍 (“unfortunate slip of the tongue” /ze’kka/).

  1. The kanji 祖 “ancestor”

History of Kanji 祖In oracle bone style (a) was an altar table and a stack of similar things. They could be ancestral tombstones or representations of many ancestors to be worshipped at an altar. In (b) and in bronze ware style (c) an altar table disappeared, but in (d) in seal style it reappeared. The kanji 祖 means “ancestor.”

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /so/ is in 先祖 (“forefather; ancestor” /so’sen/), 祖先 (“ancestor; ascendant” /so’sen/), 祖国 (“mother country” /so’koku/), 祖父 (“grandfather” /so’hu/), 祖母 (“grandmother” /so’bo/) and 元祖 (“originator; founder” /ga’nso/).

All the kanji that contain a bushu shimesuhen that we looked had 示 in most of the ancient writing through as recent as kyuji. It is only in shinji that, when 示 was placed on the left side of kanji, it became a bushu shimesuhen. Other kanji such as 神, 視 and 祈 have been previously discussed. We will continue to explore more kanji that pertained or still pertain to religious matters.  Thank you very much for your reading.  – Noriko [May 20, 2917]