The Kanji 式試拭任妊作昨酢詐搾巨拒距規- Tool (1)

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Our exploration of kanji relationship between common shapes (including bushu shapes) and its origin has entered the fifth year this month. The remaining shapes that I am planning to discuss are tools, containers, bundled objects, and shapes. We begin with tools in this post –the kanji 式試拭・任妊・作昨酢詐搾・巨拒距・規.

  1. The kanji 式 “formula; way of doing; ceremony”

History of Kanji 式For the kanji 式 the seal style writing, in red, comprised 弋 “a wooden stake for marking” and 工 “craft; a tool for carpentry.” Together they signified “a set way of making or doing something” or “formula.” The meaning was also used in a social setting, such as “ceremony.” The kanji 式 means “formula; way of doing; ceremony; style.”  <The composition of the kanji 式: 弋 and 工> (the stroke order breaks up the two components)

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shiki’/ means “ceremony; style; formula.”  It is in 卒業式 (“graduation ceremony; commencement” /sotugyo’oshiki/), 和式 and 洋式 (“Japanese style, western style” /washiki/ and /yooshiki/), 正式な (“formal” /seeshiki-na/) and 公式 (“formula in mathematics; “official; formal” /kooshiki/).

  1. The kanji 試 “to test; attempt to do something; trial”

History of Kanji 試For the kanji 試 the seal style writing comprised 言 “word; language; to say,” and 式 “a set way of doing,” which was used phonetically for /shi/. Together they meant “to try to find out the correct way to do by inquiring.” In testing an apprentice or applicant, an examiner asked his examinee a question on how he would do certain things. The kanji 試 means “to test; attempt to do something; trial.” <Composition of the kanji 試: 言 and 式)

The kun-yomi 試す /tame’su/ means “to try; attempt; put to a test,” and /-damesi/ is in 力試し (“test of one’s ability” /chikarada’meshi/). Another kun-yomi 試みる /kokoromi’ru/ means “to attempt; test.” The on-yomi /shi/ is in 試験 (“examination” /shike’n/), 試合 (“game; match” /shiai/) and 試行錯誤 (“trial and error” /shikoosa’kugo/).

  1. The kanji 拭 “to wipe; mop”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 拭. The kanji 拭 comprises 扌, a bushu tehen “an act that one does using a hand,” and 式, which was used phonetically for /shoku/ to mean “to wipe; clean.” Together they meant to wipe by hand. The kanji 拭 means “to wipe; mop.” <Composition of the kanji 拭: 扌 and式>

The kun-yomi 拭く /hu’ku/ means “to wipe” and is in 手拭き (“hand towel; cloth to dry one’s hands with” /tehuki’/). Another kun-yomi /nugu’u/ also means “to wipe,” and is in 手拭い (“tenugui thin cotton cloth” /tenugui/) and 尻拭いをする (”to clear up someone’s mess or blunder” /shirinu’gui-o-suru/). The on-yomi /shoku/ is in 払拭する (“to eradicate” /husshoku-suru/).

History of Kanji 壬The next shape 壬 “something thick in the middle” from a smithery table had a bulge in the middle, as shown on the right. It is different from 壬 and 王 in the kanji  廷庭呈程望 (In those kanji the middle line came from a line pointing a straight shin signifying “standing; straight”).

  1. The kanji 任 “to entrust; leave a task with someone”

History of Kanji 任For The kanji 任 the left side of (a) and (b) in oracle bone style, in brown, and (c) in bronze ware style, in green, was “a standing person.” The right side was a smithy table with a bulge in the middle and was used phonetically for /jin; nin/. The bulge signifies “burden; responsibility.” Together they meant “a person who bears responsibility or role,” or “one entrusting a burden to someone else.” In (d) in seal style the bulge became another line, bearing the importance of its meaning, and in kanji the top became a slanted short stroke. The kanji 任 means “to entrust; leave a task with someone.” <Composition of the kanji 任: イ and 壬>

The kun-yomi 任せる /makase’ru/ means “to entrust; leave; let something do,” and is in 任せっきり (“to leave everything up to someone else” /makasekkiri/) and 人任せ (“evading responsibility” /hitoma’kase/). The on-yomi /nin/ is in 任命 (“appointment; commission” /ninmee/) and 一任する (“to leave a matter entirely to someone’s care” /ichinin-suru/).

  1. The kanji 妊 “pregnant”

History of Kanji 妊For the kanji 妊, (a) in oracle bone style, (b) and (c) in bronze ware style and (d) in seal style all comprised 女 “a woman” and 工 with a bulge (壬).” They signified “a woman who has a bulged stomach” — “pregnant.” The kanji 妊 means “pregnant.” <Composition of the kanji 妊: 女 and 壬>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /nin/ is in 妊娠 (“pregnancy” /ninshin/), 妊婦 (“pregnant woman” /ni’npu/), 避妊 (“contraception; birth control” /hinin/) and 不妊 (“infertility” /hunin/).

History of Kanji 乍The shape 乍 appeared frequently in oracle bones to mean “to create; make” and was /saku/ phonetically, and yet, accounts of its origin vary — twigs bent to make a fence; a tool such as an adze chipping off pieces of wood to make craft; woven basket, among others. The history is shown on the right.

  1. The kanji 作 “to make; create”

History of Kanji 作For the kanji 作 in oracle bone style and bronze ware style it was just 乍 “to make; create.” Soon,乍 came to be used in other kanji phonetically, and in order to keep the original meaning “to make” a standing person was added to signify “an act one does.” The kanji 作 meant “to make; create; do; begin.” <Composition of the kanji 作: イ and 乍>

The kun-yomi 作る /tsuku’ru/ means “to make,” and is in  作り方 /tsukurikata/. /-Zuku/ is in 物作り (“making an object by hand; craftsmanship” /monozu’kuri/). The on-yomi /saku/ is in 作物 (“produce” /saku’motsu/) and 工作 (“construction; craft” /ko’osaku/). Another on-yomi /sa/ is in 動作 (“action; movement; gesture” /do’osa/), 作業 (“work” /sa’gyoo/) and 作動する (“to operate; run” /sadoo-suru/).

  1. The kanji 昨 “past; last”

History of Kanji 昨For the kanji 昨 the seal style writing comprised 日 “the sun; day” and 乍, which was used phonetically for /saku/ to mean “to pass quickly.” A day passing quickly meant “past; last.” The kanji 昨 means “past; last.” <Composition of the kanji 昨: 日 and 乍>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /saku/ is in 昨年 (“last year” /sakunen/), 一昨年 (“the year before last” /issakunen/), 昨日 (“yesterday” /saku’jitu; kinoo/) and 昨今 (“these days” /sak’konn/).

  1. The kanji 酢 “vinegar”

History of Kanji 酢We have looked at the kanji 酢 quite recetly in connection with the bushu 酉 “cask for fermented liquid.” The right side 乍 was used phonetically for /saku/ to mean “something past.” Rice wine that went bad was vinegar. The kanji 酢 means “vinegar.” For sample words, please refer to the earlier post.  <Composition of the kanji 酢: 酉 and 乍>

  1. The kanji 詐 “to deceive; lie”

History of Kanji 詐The writings in bronze ware style and seal style comprised 言 “word; language; to say” and 乍, which was used phonetically for /saku/ to mean “deceive.” Together they meant “to break oath.” The kanji 詐 means “to deceive; lie.” <Composition of the kanji 詐: 言 and 乍>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /sa/ is in 詐欺 (“fraud; swindle” /sa’gi/).

  1. The kanji 搾 “to wring; squeeze; exploit”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 搾. 搾 comprises 扌, a bushu tehen “an act that one does using a hand,” and 穴 “a hole” and 乍, which was used phonetically for /saku/ to mean “to force something into a small hole.” Together they meant “to wring; squeeze.” It is also used to mean “to extort.” The kanji 搾 means “to squeeze; exploit.” <Composition of the kanji 搾: 扌, 穴 and 乍>

The kun-yomi 搾る /shibo’ru/ means /to squeeze/ and is in 乳搾り (“milking” /chichishi’bori/). The on-yomi /saku/ is in 搾取する (“to exploit” /sa’kushu-suru/).

  1. The kanji 巨 “huge; giant; gigantic”

History of Kanji 巨For the kanji 巨 (a) and (b) in bronze ware style was “a large carpenter’s rectangular ruler with a handle in the middle,” and (c) had “a person who was holding a ruler” added. There were two different writings in seal style — (d) had “an arrow (矢),” which was used to measure a short object, “a large ruler” (巨) and a wooden object (木), whereas (e) returned to the original shape of a large ruler only. The kanji 巨 means “huge; giant; gigantic.” <The stroke order of 巨 begins with the vertical line>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /kyo/ is in 巨大な (“huge; gigantic; colossal” /kyodai-na/) and 巨人 (“giant” /kyojin/).

  1. The kanji 拒 “to prevent; refuse; reject”

There is no ancient writing for the kanji 拒. The kanji 拒 comprises 扌, a bushu tehen “an act that one does using a hand,” and 巨, which was used phonetically for /kyo/ to mean “to prevent.” One account says that the shape of a large carpenter’s rule was similar to a side bar for preventing traffic. The kanji 拒 means “to prevent; refuse; reject.”

The kun-yomi /koba’mu/ means “to reject; prevent.” The on-yomi /kyo/ is in 拒絶 (“refusal; rejection” /kyozetu/) and 拒否 (“refusal; turning down” /kyo’hi/).

  1. The kanji 距 “distance”

History of Kanji 距For the kanji 距 the bronze ware style writing had 足 “foot,” and a shape that was used phonetically for /kyo/. The short line in the middle was considered to be similar to a spur of a chicken, and that a chicken leaping a long distance signified “distance.” The kanji 距 means “distance.” <Composition of the kanji 距: あしへん and 巨>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /kyo/ is in 距離 (“distance” /kyo’ri/).

  1. The kanji 規 “standard; criterion”

History of Kanji 規One last tool we look at in this post came from “a compass to draw a circle.” For the kanji 規 the left side of the seal style writing looked like that of the kanji 夫, but it did not share the same origin – it was “a compass to draw a circle,” possibly using two short arrows. “A tool that was used to draw a circle” gave the meaning “standard; criterion.” The right side was 見 “to look at.” The kanji 規 meant “standard.” <Composition of the kanji 規: 夫 with a short fourth stroke and 見>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /ki/ is in 規準 (“standard; criterion; norm” /kijun/) and 規定 (“regulation” /kitee/), and /-gi/ is in 定規 (“ruler” /jo’ogi/).

Well, the article has ended up a little too long here. I had better end it here. We shall continue this topic in the next post. Thank you very much for your reading. – Noriko [December 9, 2017]

The Kanji 酒配酎酵酷酌酬醜酔醒酢酸- Food (4) 酉

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In this post we are going to look at the kanji 酒配酎酵酷酌酬醜酔醒酢酸 that contains 酉 “a rice wine cask.”

History of Kanji 酉The common component 酉 here is not a Joyo kanji. In all of the ancient writings shown on the right – (a) in oracle bone style, in brown, (b) and (c) in bronze ware style, in green, and (d) seal style, in red, – was “a rice wine cask” or “a cask to keep fermented liquid in.” So all the kanji that we are going to look at pertain to “fermentation” at one stage of the history.

The writing 酉 is used in the 12 Chinese zodiac signs, but, as with the rest of the 12 zodiac signs, the kanji was chosen arbitrarily and had no relation to its meaning. By itself it is pronounced /tori/, and is in 酉年 (“the year of chicken” /toridoshi/). Just a reminder — The kanji for “west” 西 has one stroke fewer, and is not related to this kanji.

  1. The kanji 酒 “alcohol beverage; rice wine; sake

History of Kanji 酒2In oracle bone style (a), “a rice wine cask” was on the left and “water; liquid” on the right. In bronze ware style (b), (c) and (d) “a rice wine cask” was standing alone but the small dots in (c) were pointing out its contents rather than the cask as a container. Together they meant “rice wine.” In (e) in seal style “water; liquid” was separately added to a wine cask, possibly signifying that it was the liquid from which sake lees had been removed. The kanji 酒 means “rice wine; fermented drink; alcohol beverage.”   <The composition of the kanji 酒: 氵and 酉>

The kun-yomi /sake/ means “Japanese rice wine; sake; alcohol beverage,” and is in 酒粕 (“sake lees” /sakekasu/), which is used for cooking as well. /-Zake/ is in 寝酒 (“nightcap” /nezake/), 甘酒 (“sweet sake lee drink” /amaza’ke/) and 居酒屋 (“pub; bar; tavern” /izakaya/).  /Saka-/ is in 酒屋 (“liquor store; alcohol beverage shop” /sakaya/), 酒盛り (”drinking party; drinking bout” /sakamori/). The on-yomi /shu/ is in 日本酒 (“Japanese rice wine” /nihonshu/) and 葡萄酒 (“(grape) wine” /budo’oshu/).

  1. The kanji 配 “to distribute; hand out; arrange”

History of Kanji 配(a) in oracle bone style, (b) and (c) in bronze ware style and (d) in seal style all comprised “a wine cask” on the left and “a squatting person looking at the cask.” He was waiting for rice wine to be handed out to him. It means “to hand out; deal.” In (d) in seal style and kanji 配, the person took the shape 己 “a squatting person; a person.” The kanji 配 means “to distribute; to hand out; to arrange.”  <The composition of the kanji 配: 酉 and 己>

The kun-yomi 配る /kuba’ru/ means “to deliver; deal.” The on-yomi /hai/ is in 配達 (“delivery of goods/food” /haitatsu/), 配分する (“to allocate; distribute” /haibun-suru/), 手配する (“to arrange; provide for” /te’hai-suru/), 配当金 (“divined” /haitookin/). /-Pai/ is in 心配 (“worry” /shinpai/). /-Bai/ is in 軍配 (“an umpire’s fan” in a sumo match /gunbai/).

  1. The kanji 酎 “distilled liquor; flavorful three-time filtered liquor”

History of Kanji 酎The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” and 寸 “a hand,” which was used phonetically for /chuu/. Together they meant “flavorful wine that was filtered three times.” The kanji 酎 means “flavorful rice wine.”  <The composition of the kanji 酎: 酉 and 寸>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /chuu/ is in 焼酎 (“white liquor; Japanese distilled liquor made of potato” /shoochu’u/).

  1. The kanji 酵 “yeast; fermentation”

There is no ancient writing. The kanji 酵 had 酉 “a rice wine cask” on the left. The right side 孝 “filial duty” (with 耂, a bushu “old person”) was used phonetically for /koo/, perhaps suggesting a long time to ferment. Together they meant “yeast” that made fermented wine or “fermentation.” The kanji 酵 means “fermentation; yeast.”  <The composition of the kanji 酵: 酉 and 孝 >

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /koo/ is in 発酵する (“to ferment” /hakkoo-suru/), 酵母 (“yeast” /ko’obo/) and 酵素 (“enzyme” /ko’oso/).

  1. The kanji 酷 “cruel”

History of Kanji 酷The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” and 告, which was used phonetically for /koku/. Together they meant “intense taste of alcohol.” From that the kanji 酷 means “intense; cruel; harsh.” The phrase  酷のある /koku-no-a’ru/ “full-bodied; robust” is usually written in katakana コク nowadays.   <The composition of the kanji 酷: 酉 and 告>

The kun-yomi 酷い /mugo’i/ means “cruel.” The on-yomi /koku/ is in 残酷な (“cruel; extremely harsh” /zankoku-na/), 酷暑 (“severe heat of summer” /ko’kusho/) and 酷使する (“to drive someone work hard; strain oneself” /ko’kushi-suru/).

  1. The kanji 酌 “to serve wine; scoop out sake”

History of Kanji 酌The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” and 勺 “a ladle scooping up,” which was used phonetically for /shaku/. Together they meant “a ladle scooping up wine.” The kanji 酌 means “to serve wine; scoop out sake.”  <The composition of the kanji 酌: 酉 and 勺>

There is no kun-yomi. The on-yomi /shaku/ is in お酌する (“to fill someone else’s sake cup” /oshaku-suru/), 晩酌 (“evening dinner-time drink” /banshaku/), 媒酌人 (“matchmaker” at a wedding /baishakunin/) and 酌量 (“consideration” /shakuryoo/).

  1. The kanji 酬 “reply; reward; fee”

History of Kanji 酬In seal style (a) and (b) had 酉 “a rice wine cask” on the left. The right side of (a), 寿 (the kyuji 壽) “long life; auspicious,” was used phonetically for /shuu/. Together they originally meant “to offer a drink of wine to a guest.” Later it meant “to reply; reward.” In (b) 壽 was replaced by the phonetically same 州 /shuu/. The kanji 酬 is also used for “fee.”  <The composition of the kanji 酬: 酉 and 州>

The kun-yomi 酬いる /mukui’ru; mukuiru/ means “to reward.” The on-yomi /shuu/ is in 応酬する (“to make a sharp retort; reply” /ooshuu-suru/) and 報酬 (“reward; fee” /hooshuu/).

  1. The kanji 醜 “ugly”

History of Kanji 醜The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” which was used phonetically for /shuu/. The right side was 鬼 “spirit of a deceased; ghost,” which had a frightfully ugly face and ム “a floating spirit.” Together they meant “ugly; mean-spirited; shameful.” <The composition of the kanji 醜: 酉 and 鬼>

The kun-yomi /miniku’i/ means “ugly; shameful.”  The on-yomi /shuu/ is in 醜聞 (“scandal; malicious gossip” /shuubun/) and 醜悪な (“unsightly” /shuuaku-na/).

  1. The kanji 酔 “to become drunk; be intoxicated”

History of Kanji 酔The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” and 卒 “to end,” which was used phonetically for /sui/. Together they meant “to drink rice wine to finish off” – thus “to be drunk.” The kyuji 醉, in blue, reflected seal style, but in shinji 酔 the right side 卒 was replaced by 卆. The kanji 酔 means “to become drunk; get inebriated on sake; be intoxicated.”  <The composition of the kanji 酔: 酉 and 卆>

The kun-yomi 酔う /yo’u/ means “to become drunk; become intoxicated,” and is in 船酔い (“seasickness” /hunayoi/), and 酔っ払い (“a drunken man; drunk” /yopparai/). The on-yomi /sui/ is in 心酔する (“to adore; be fascinated by” /shinsui-suru/),  酔狂な (“eccentric; whimsical” /su’ikyoo-na/), 麻酔 (“anesthesia” /masui/) and 陶酔する (“to be intoxicated; be fascinated” /toosui-suru/).

  1. The kanji 醒 “to awaken; have clear awareness”

History of Kanji 醒The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a rice wine cask,” and 星, which was used phonetically for /see/. Together they meant “to sober up from being drunk,” that is “to awaken; have clear awareness.” The kanji 醒 means “to awaken; have clear awareness.” <The composition of the kanji 醒: 酉and 星>

The kun-yomi 醒める /same’ru/ means “to become awake.” The on-yomi /see/ is in 覚醒剤 (“psychostimulant; stimulant drug” /kakuse’ezai/). It is a strange use of this kanji.

  1. The kanji 酢 “vinegar”

History of Kanji 酢The two bronze ware style writings had “a cask of fermented liquid” (酉), and 乍, which was used phonetically for /saku/ to mean “something past,” which is related to the kanji 昨. Rice wine that went bad is vinegar. The kanji 酢 means “vinegar.”  <The composition of the kanji 醒: 酉 and 星>

The kun-yomi 酢 /su/ means “vinegar,” 酢豚 (“sweet and sour pork” /su’buta/) and is in 酢の物 (“a vinegared dish” /suno’mono/). The on-yomi /saku/ is in 酢酸 (“acetic acid” /sakusan/).

  1. The kanji 酸 “sour; acid”

History of Kanji 酸The seal style writing comprised 酉 “a wine cask,” and 夋, which was used phonetically for /san/ to mean “sour.” When wine goes bad it becomes sour. The kanji means “acidic; sour.” <The composition of the kanji 酸: 酉 and 夋>

The kun-yomi 酸っぱい /suppa/i/ means “sour” and is in 甘酸っぱい (/amazuppa’i/ “sweet and sour”). The on-yomi /san/ is in 酸素 (“oxygen” /sa’nso/), 酸性 (“acidity” /sansee/), 塩酸 (“hydrochloric acid” /ensan/), 酸化する(“to oxidize” /sanka-suru/), 炭酸飲料水 (“carbonated drink” /tansan-inryo’osui/) and 乳酸菌 (“lactic acid bacteria” /nyuusankin/).

Among the kanji we did not look at in this post include 醤油 (“soy sauce” /shooyu’/), which is a seasoning liquid that was made of soy beans with yeast (酵母), and the kyuji 醫 for 医, which had 酉 at the bottom as sake to cleanse an arrow wound. We have also looked at 醸 “fermentation” in an earlier post.

When we look at any of the kanji 酒配酎酵酷酌酬醜酔醒酢酸 in isolation, it may appear to have a complex shape. Once we understand the meaning of the common component 酉, however, it reduces our task to just focusing on the other component, which is likely a component we have studied already in other kanji. So, it becomes a matter of comparing simpler shapes and adding “fermentation” to it. That is the advantage of learning kanji by common components, or bushu in a larger sense. — Sorry for my pitch. I know that our regular readers need no such reminder. The old habit of a classroom teacher stating the obvious is hard to lose.  Thank you very much for your reading.  -Noriko [September 9, 2017]